Article 5 что это
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Article 5 что это

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Перевод «Article 5» на русский

Некоторые страны, действующие в рамках пункта 1 статьи 5, приближаются к отказу от сектора пеноматериалов.

Undeclared imports and smuggling of methyl bromide into Article 5 countries was an increasing problem.

Незаявленный импорт и контрабанда бромистого метила в страны, действующие в рамках статьи 5, представляют собой все более усугубляющуюся проблему.

Article 5 recognizes the fundamental nature of national regimes of prosecutorial discretion.

В Статье 5 признается основополагающий характер действующих в различных государствах режимов регулирования усмотрения обвинительной власти.

The resettlement shall be completed according to the schedule stipulated in Article 5.
Б. Новое место жительства будет предоставляться в соответствии с графиком, указанным в Статье 5.
Either Article 5 is an absolute guarantee or it is worthless.
Либо Статья 5 является абсолютной гарантией, либо она не имеет никакой ценности.
Article 5 applies to «everyone».
«Статья 5 действует в отношений «каждого».
Article 5 stipulates that nationals may not be extradited.
В статье 5 соглашения говорится, что выдаче не подлежат собственные подданные.
Instances of violence in partnerships were discussed in Article 5.
Вопросы, касающиеся насилия в гражданских браках, обсуждались в статье 5.
Article 5 contains many points requiring clarification.
В статье 5 есть много моментов, которые следовало бы уточнить.
See response above concerning Article 5, paragraph 1.
Ответ см. выше в материалах, посвященных пункту 1 статьи 5.
The list from Article 5 is comprehensive.
Перечень, содержащийся в статье 5, является исчерпывающим.

However, considerable challenges remain in achieving transition to alternatives, particularly in Article 5 countries.

Однако при достижении перехода на альтернативы, особенно в странах, действующих в рамках статьи 5, сохраняются немалые трудности.

The reported data had also revealed a few Article 5 parties with possible non-compliance issues.

Представленные данные также свидетельствуют о наличии нескольких Сторон, действующих в рамках статьи 5, в отношении которых имеются вопросы, связанные с возможным несоблюдением.

Article 5 Parties needed to produce clear action plans before being allocating funding.

Стороны, действующие в рамках статьи 5, должны разрабатывать четкие планы действий до рассмотрения их финансирования.

Difficulties faced by some Article 5 Parties manufacturing metered-dose inhalers which use chlorofluorocarbons.

Трудности, с которыми сталкиваются некоторые действующие в рамках статьи 5 Стороны, производящие дозированные ингаляторы, в которых используются хлорфторуглероды.

No Party not operating under paragraph 1 of Article 5 has expressed similar concerns.
Ни одна из Сторон, не действующих в рамках пункта 1 статьи 5, не выразила аналогичной озабоченности.
The phase-out of methyl bromide remained a serious challenge to Article 5 Parties.

Ликвидация бромистого метила по-прежнему представляет собой серьезную проблему для Сторон, действующих в рамках статьи 5.

Turkmenistan had been reclassified as an Article 5 Party in 2004.
Туркменистан был реклассифицирован в качестве Стороны, действующей в рамках статьи 5, в 2004 году.
One further application is found in an Article 5 Party.
Еще один вид применения был выявлен в одной из Сторон, действующих в рамках статьи 5.
Article 5 is the backbone of NATO.
Статья 5 занимает центральное место в системе сдерживания НАТО.
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What are NATO Articles 4 and 5?

After reports of a missile strike in Poland, there had been speculation the Polish government might invoke Article 4 of the NATO treaty.

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Article 4 of the NATO treaty covers the case when a member state feels threatened by another country or a terrorist organization. The 30 member states then start formal consultations at the request of the threatened member. The talks look at whether a threat exists and how to counter it, with decisions arrived at unanimously.

Article 4 does not, however, mean that there will be direct pressure to act.

This consultation mechanism has been triggered several times in NATO’s history. For instance, by Turkey one year ago, when Turkish soldiers were killed in an attack from Syria. At that time, NATO decided to consult, but did not take any action.

Chechens fighting for and against Russia in Ukraine

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How does NATO Article 4 differ from Article 5?

Following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in late February, NATO members Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland triggered Article 4. Along with Slovakia, Hungary and Romania, those countries are part of the «eastern flank» of NATO, which has been reinforced with thousands of troops from NATO members.

Article 4 is different from Article 5 of the NATO Charter. The latter lays out the military assistance by the entire alliance, should one of the member states get attacked. The only time that Article 5 was used was in 2001 after the al-Qaeda attacks on the US, which killed more than 3,000 people. They became known as the 9/11 attacks. When the US then attacked Afghanistan, NATO sent a mission alongside.

The NATO treaty only applies to member states. Given that Ukraine is not part of the alliance, it can trigger neither Article 4 nor 5.

This article was originally published in German

Bernd Riegert Senior European correspondent in Brussels with a focus on people and politics in the European Union

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Depressive disorder (depression)

Depressive disorder (also known as depression) is a common mental disorder. It involves a depressed mood or loss of pleasure or interest in activities for long periods of time.

Depression is different from regular mood changes and feelings about everyday life. It can affect all aspects of life, including relationships with family, friends and community. It can result from or lead to problems at school and at work.

Depression can happen to anyone. People who have lived through abuse, severe losses or other stressful events are more likely to develop depression. Women are more likely to have depression than men.

An estimated 3.8% of the population experience depression, including 5% of adults (4% among men and 6% among women), and 5.7% of adults older than 60 years. Approximately 280 million people in the world have depression (1). Depression is about 50% more common among women than among men. Worldwide, more than 10% of pregnant women and women who have just given birth experience depression (2). More than 700 000 people die due to suicide every year. Suicide is the fourth leading cause of death in 15–29-year-olds.

Although there are known, effective treatments for mental disorders, more than 75% of people in low- and middle-income countries receive no treatment (3). Barriers to effective care include a lack of investment in mental health care, lack of trained health-care providers and social stigma associated with mental disorders.

Symptoms and patterns

During a depressive episode, a person experiences a depressed mood (feeling sad, irritable, empty). They may feel a loss of pleasure or interest in activities.

A depressive episode is different from regular mood fluctuations. They last most of the day, nearly every day, for at least two weeks.

Other symptoms are also present, which may include:

  • poor concentration
  • feelings of excessive guilt or low self-worth
  • hopelessness about the future
  • thoughts about dying or suicide
  • disrupted sleep
  • changes in appetite or weight
  • feeling very tired or low in energy.

Depression can cause difficulties in all aspects of life, including in the community and at home, work and school.

A depressive episode can be categorized as mild, moderate, or severe depending on the number and severity of symptoms, as well as the impact on the individual’s functioning.

There are different patterns of depressive episodes including:

  • single episode depressive disorder, meaning the person’s first and only episode;
  • recurrent depressive disorder, meaning the person has a history of at least two depressive episodes; and
  • bipolar disorder, meaning that depressive episodes alternate with periods of manic symptoms, which include euphoria or irritability, increased activity or energy, and other symptoms such as increased talkativeness, racing thoughts, increased self-esteem, decreased need for sleep, distractibility, and impulsive reckless behaviour.

Contributing factors and prevention

Depression results from a complex interaction of social, psychological, and biological factors. People who have gone through adverse life events (unemployment, bereavement, traumatic events) are more likely to develop depression. Depression can, in turn, lead to more stress and dysfunction and worsen the affected person’s life situation and the depression itself.

Depression is closely related to and affected by physical health. Many of the factors that influence depression (such as physical inactivity or harmful use of alcohol) are also known risk factors for diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and respiratory diseases. In turn, people with these diseases may also find themselves experiencing depression due to the difficulties associated with managing their condition.

Prevention programmes have been shown to reduce depression. Effective community approaches to prevent depression include school-based programmes to enhance a pattern of positive coping in children and adolescents. Interventions for parents of children with behavioural problems may reduce parental depressive symptoms and improve outcomes for their children. Exercise programmes for older persons can also be effective in depression prevention.

Diagnosis and treatment

There are effective treatments for depression. These include psychological treatment and medications. Seek care if you have symptoms of depression.

Psychological treatments are the first treatments for depression. They can be combined with antidepressant medications in moderate and severe depression. Antidepressant medications are not needed for mild depression.

Psychological treatments can teach new ways of thinking, coping or relating to others. They may include talk therapy with professionals and supervised lay therapists. Talk therapy can happen in person or online. Psychological treatments may be accessed through self-help manuals, websites and apps.

Effective psychological treatments for depression include:

  • behavioural activation
  • cognitive behavioural therapy
  • interpersonal psychotherapy
  • problem-solving therapy.

Antidepressant medications include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as fluoxetine.

Health-care providers should keep in mind the possible adverse effects associated with antidepressant medication, the ability to deliver either intervention (in terms of expertise, and/or treatment availability), and individual preferences.

Antidepressants should not be used for treating depression in children and are not the first line of treatment in adolescents, among whom they should be used with extra caution.

Different medications and treatments are used for bipolar disorder.

Self-care

Self-care can play an important role in managing symptoms of depression and promoting overall well-being.

What you can do:

  • try to keep doing activities you used to enjoy
  • stay connected to friends and family
  • exercise regularly, even if it’s just a short walk
  • stick to regular eating and sleeping habits as much as possible
  • avoid or cut down on alcohol and don’t use illicit drugs, which can make depression worse
  • talk to someone you trust about your feelings
  • seek help from a healthcare provider.

If you have thoughts of suicide:

  • remember you are not alone, and that many people have gone through what you’re experiencing and found help
  • talk to someone you trust about how you feel
  • talk to a health worker, such as a doctor or counsellor
  • join a support group.

If you think you are in immediate danger of harming yourself, contact any available emergency services or a crisis line.

WHO response

WHO’s Mental health action plan 2013–2030 highlights the steps required to provide appropriate interventions for people with mental disorders including depression.

Depression and self-harm/suicide are among the priority conditions covered by WHO’s Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP). The Programme aims to help countries increase services for people with mental, neurological and substance use disorders through care provided by health workers who are not specialists in mental health.

WHO has developed brief psychological intervention manuals for depression that may be delivered by lay therapists to individuals and groups. An example is the Problem management plus (PM+) manual, which describes the use of behavioural activation, stress management, problem solving treatment and strengthening social support. Moreover, the Group interpersonal therapy for depression manual describes group treatment of depression. Finally, the Thinking healthy manual covers the use of cognitive-behavioural therapy for perinatal depression.

References

  1. Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation. Global Health Data Exchange (GHDx). https://vizhub.healthdata.org/gbd-results/ (Accessed 4 March 2023).
  2. Woody CA, Ferrari AJ, Siskind DJ, Whiteford HA, Harris MG. A systematic review and meta-regression of the prevalence and incidence of perinatal depression. J Affect Disord. 2017;219:86–92.
  3. Evans-Lacko S, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Al-Hamzawi A, et al. Socio-economic variations in the mental health treatment gap for people with anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders: results from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys. Psychol Med. 2018;48(9):1560-1571.

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