Какую лицензию выбрать на github
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Какую лицензию выбрать на github

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Как выбрать Open Source лицензию для RAD фреймворка на GitHub

В этой статье мы немного поговорим об авторском праве, но в основном о выборе свободной лицензии для RAD фреймворка IONDV. Framework и для опенсорсных продуктов на его основе. Мы расскажем о разрешительной лицензии Apache 2.0, о том, что привело нас к ней и с какими решениями мы столкнулись в процессе.

Процесс выбора лицензии достаточно трудоемкий и к нему следует подходить уже изрядно начитанным, и если вы не счастливый обладатель юридического образования, то перед вами открывается непаханое поле информации о разнообразных свободных лицензиях. Основное, что следует сделать это составить ряд ограничивающих критериев. В процессе обсуждения и осмысления вы с командой сможете понять, что хотите разрешить пользователям вашего продукта, а что запретить. Когда на руках у вас уже есть некое описание необходимо наложить его на существующие лицензии и выделить ту, где наибольшее количество пунктов совпало. Звучит, конечно, просто, но в реальности, обычно даже после обсуждения, остаются вопросы.

Сперва — ссылка на choosealicense.com, полезный сайт, которым мы активно пользовались. Особенно обратите внимание на сравнительную таблицу лицензий по 13 основным критериям. Да прибудет с вами английский и терпение.

Муки выбора

Начнем с общих признаков лицензий для свободного программного обеспечения. СПО подразумевает исключительно свободную лицензию, которая не ограничивает коммерческое и некоммерческое распространение по модели Open Core. Соответственно, выкладывая в сеть ПО под свободной лицензией нельзя полностью ограничить его передачу, распространение и продажу третьими лицами и к этому надо лишь морально подготовиться.

Свободная лицензия даёт пользователю право самому участвовать в обратной разработке ПО или изменять его другими доступными способами. Большинство лицензий не позволяет переименовывать продукт или проводить с ним любые манипуляции, изменяя права автора или/и владельца системы.

Основные интересовавшие нас вопросы о свободных лицензиях заключались в:

  1. Внесенные изменения в ПО должны быть зафиксированы и не имеют никакого отношения к правообладателю системы?
  2. Имя производного ПО не должно совпадать с именем ПО правообладателя?
  3. Можно ли изменить лицензию для любых новых версий на другую, в том числе и на проприетарную?

Внимательно посмотрев список самых распространенных лицензий, мы выбрали несколько, которые рассматривали более подробно. Потенциальные лицензии для IONDV. Framwork были: GNU GPLv3, Apache 2.0, MIT и MРL. MIT практически сразу исключили, это разрешительная некопилефтная лицензия, которая разрешает использование, модифицирование и распространение кода практически как угодно, а нас такой вариант не устраивал, мы все таки хотели чтобы лицензия регулировала отношения правообладателя и пользователя. Большинство не самых крупных проектов на GitHub выложено именно под лицензией MIT или ее различных вариаций. Сама лицензия очень короткая, и из запретов только указание авторства создателя ПО.

Следующей была лицензия MPL 2.0. Признаться мы не сразу к ней пришли, но изучив более подробно быстро исключили, так как основной недостаток такой — лицензия применяется не для всего проекта, а для отдельных файлов. Кроме того, если пользователь изменяет файл, то лицензию он изменить не может. По факту, как бы старательно ты не менял Open source проект ты так и не сможешь его монетизировать из-за подобной лицензии. Это кстати не касается правообладателя.

Подобная проблема сохраняется и у лицензии GNU GPLv3. Она требует, чтобы любой файл оставался под ней же. GNU GPL — это копилефтная лицензия, которая требует, чтобы исходные коды производных работ были открытыми и оставались под этой же лицензией. То есть: переписав две строчки кода вы будете вынуждены зафиксировать свои изменения и при дальнейшем использовании или распространении сохранять код под GNU GPL. В данном случае, это ограничивающий фактор для пользователя нашего проекта, а не для нас. Но смена GPL на любую другую лицензию запрещена, даже внутри версий GPL. Например, если поменять LGPL (надстройка над GPL) на GPL, то обратной дороги к LGPL уже не будет. И этот пункт был решающим в голосовании против.

В целом, наш выбор изначально склонялся к GPL3 именно по причине распространения модифицированного кода под той же лицензией. Мы думали, что тем самым сможем обезопасить свой продукт, но мы увидели меньше рисков в Apache 2.0. Cогласно Free Software Foundation, GPLv3 совместима с Apache License v2.0., то есть всегда есть возможность сменить лицензию с Apache License v2.0 на GPL v3.0.

Apache 2.0

Apache 2.0 — сбалансированная разрешительная лицензия с акцентом на авторские права. Вот какие ответы она дала на интересующие нас вопросы. Внесенные изменения в ПО должны быть зафиксированы и не имеют никакого отношения к правообладателю системы? Да, все изменения должны быть задокументированы и мы не несем ответственность ни за исходный код, ни за измененный. Файл с изменениями должен прикладываться к коду в который вы эти изменения внесли. Имя производного ПО не должно совпадать с именем ПО правообладателя? Да, производное ПО должно выходить под другим именем и под другим товарным знаком, но с указанием авторства правообладателя. Можно ли изменить лицензию для любых новых версий на другую, в том числе и на проприетарную? Да, можно выпускать под разными лицензиями, Apache 2.0 не ограничивает применения любых некоммерческих и коммерческих лицензий.

Также выпуская новые продукты на основе открытого под Apache 2.0 кода или продукты дополнительной функциональности не обязательно использовать ту же лицензию. Ниже можно посмотреть изображение с условиями и ограничениями лицензии Apache 2.0.

Лицензия выдвигает требование сохранения и упоминания авторских прав и лицензии под которой выпускается ПО. Обязательное наличие copyright notice с именем правообладателя и лицензией защищает права первоначального автора ПО, так как даже если оно будет переименовано, отдано или продано под другой лицензией, то знак автора все равно останется. Для этого также можно использовать файл NOTICE и приложить его либо в исходный код или в документацию к проекту.

Мы выпускаем в открытый доступ на GitHub все наши продукты под лицензией Apache 2.0, кроме IONDV. War archive, исходный код которого в апреле этого года был опубликован под лицензией GPLv3 на GitHub Дальневосточным центром социальных технологий. На данный момент помимо самого фреймворка и его модулей опубликованы приложения сделанные на фремворке. На хабре мы уже рассказывали про Систему управления проектами и про Реестр связи.

Тех. детали о фреймворке

IONDV. Framework – опенсорс фреймворк на node.js по созданию высокоуровневых веб-приложений на основе метаданных, что не требует серьезных навыков программирования.

Основу функциональности приложения составляет реестр данных — модуль Регистри. Это ключевой модуль, предназначенный непосредственно для работы с данными на основе структур метаданных – в том числе по ведению проектов, программ, мероприятий и др. Также в проекте используется модуль портала для отображения произвольных шаблонов данных – на нем реализован фронт реестра архивных дел.

Для СУБД используется MongoDb — в ней хранятся и настройки приложения, метаданные и сами данные.

Как применить лицензию к своему проекту?

Добавьте файл LICENSE с текстом лицензии в репозиторий своего проекта и voilà, проект под защитой Apache 2.0. Нужно указать правообладателя, это и есть copiright notice. Сделать это можно в исходном коде или в файле NOTICE (текстовый файл, перечисляющий все библиотеки, лицензированные под лицензией Apache вместе с именами их создателей). Cам файл положить либо в исходный код, либо в документацию, распространяемую вместе с работой. У нас это выглядит вот так:

Copyright © 2018 LLC «ION DV».
Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0

Текст лицензии Apache 2.0

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Лицензия = договор

Свободная лицензия, она хоть и свободная, но не допускает вседозволенности и мы уже привели примеры ограничений. Выбирайте лицензию учитывая как свои интересы, так и пользователя, потому что открытое ПО рассчитано именно на него. Пользователю проекта следует воспринимать лицензию как своеобразный договор между ним и правообладателем, поэтому прежде чем проводить какие-либо действие над исходным кодом, внимательно изучите ограничения, накладываемые на вас лицензией проекта.

Надеемся, что мы пролили немного света на тему лицензий и, несмотря на сложность вопроса, он не должен стать препятствием на вашем пути в Open Source. Развивайте свой проект и не забывайте о правах, своих и чужих.

Полезные ссылки

Напоследок немного полезных ресурсов, которые нам помогли при поиске информации о существующих лицензиях и подборе наиболее подходящей под наши цели:

  • LicenseIT
  • Список лицензий
  • Лицензирование репо от гитхаб
  • Гайд по опенсорсу
  • Тексты лицензий
  • Разница между различными типами открытых лицензий
  • Краткий гид по open‑source лицензиям
  • Супер полезная статья от marked-one
  • Типы лицензий Open Source
  • Про GNU GPL 3
  • Ответ с StackOverflow

Какую лицензию выбрать на github

Нас часто спрашивают, какую лицензию мы рекомендуем для их проекта. Мы открыто писали об этом раньше, но сведения были разбросаны по разным очеркам, пунктам вопросов и ответов и пояснениям к лицензиям. В этой статье все эти сведения собраны в один источник, чтобы людям было легче следовать им и ссылаться на них.

Приводимые ниже рекомендации применимы к лицензированию работ, которые вы создаете — это может быть доработка существующих работ или оригинальные новые работы. Вопрос комбинирования существующего материала под разными лицензиями в них не рассматривается. Если вам нужна помощь в этом вопросе, сверьтесь, пожалуйста с нашими ответами на вопросы о GPL.

Если вы захотите проконсультироваться после того, как прочтете наши рекомендации, вы можете написать по адресу . Имейте в виду, что нашей группе лицензирования, вероятно, потребуется несколько недель, чтобы вам ответить; если вы не получили ответа в течение месяца, напишите, пожалуйста, еще раз.

Вклад в существующий проект

Когда вы делаете вклад в существующий проект, вам обычно следует выпускать свои измененные версии под той же лицензией, под которой выпущена первоначальная работа. Сотрудничество с разработчиками проекта — это хорошо, а применение другой лицензии для ваших доработок часто сильно затрудняет это сотрудничество. Вам следует применять другую лицензию, только когда есть веский довод, оправдывающий это.

Если вы по какой бы то ни было причине решаете выпускать свои доработки под другой лицензией, вы должны убедиться, что первоначальная лицензия позволяет использовать материал на условиях выбранной вами лицензии. Чтобы быть честными, указывайте явно, какая лицензия распространяется на какие части работы.

Программы

Мы рекомендуем разные лицензии для разных проектов в зависимости, главным образом, от назначения программ. В целом мы рекомендуем применять лицензию с наиболее сильным авторским левом, которое не мешало бы назначению программ. В нашем очерке Что такое авторское лево? подробнее разъясняется понятие авторского лева и рассказывается, почему это, как правило, наилучшая стратегия лицензирования.

Теперь об исключениях, когда лучше применять какие-то другие лицензии вместо GNU GPL.

Небольшие программы

Не стоит беспокоиться о том, чтобы применить авторское лево к маленькой программе. В качестве оценки мы применяем размер в 300 строк исходного текста пакета: когда исходный текст пакета короче, выгоды авторского лева обычно слишком малы, чтобы оправдать неудобства, связанные с необходимостью всегда сопровождать программу копией лицензии.

Для этих программ мы рекомендуем версию 2.0 Лицензии Apache. Это слабая безвольная неограничительная лицензия программ (без авторского лева), в которой есть условия, предотвращающие преследования со стороны вторичных разработчиков и распространителей за нарушение патентов. Это не делает программы стойкими к патентным угрозам (этого нельзя добиться с помощью лицензии на программу), но это лишает держателей патентов возможности “ловить на блесну”, когда они выпускают программы на свободных условиях, а затем требуют, чтобы получатели соглашались на несвободные условия из патентной лицензии.

Apache 2.0 — лучшая из слабых (неограничительных) лицензий; так что если вы собираетесь воспользоваться безвольно-неограничительной лицензией по любой причине, мы рекомедндуем ее.

Библиотеки

Для библиотек мы различаем три вида случаев.

Некоторые библиотеки реализуют свободные форматы данных, конкурирующие с ограниченными форматами данных, такие как Огг Ворбис (который конкурирует с форматом звука MP3) и ВебМ (конкурирующий с видеоформатом MPEG-4). Для успеха свободного формата требуется, чтобы многим несвободным программам было можно компоноваться с библиотекой, чтобы работать с этим форматом. Например, мы хотели, чтобы несвободные проигрыватели работали не только с MP3, но и с Ogg Vorbis.

Однако мы должны признать, что для Ogg Vorbis эта стратегия не была успешной. Даже после того, как лицензия авторского права была изменена, чтобы допускать включение программ из этой библиотеки в несвободные приложения безо всяких затруднений, разработчики несвободных программ не по большей части не делали этого. Жертва, сделанная при выборе лицензии, в конечном счете ничего нам не дала.

Для всех других библиотек мы рекомендуем тот или иной вид авторского лева. Если разработчики уже применяют развитую альтернативную библиотеку, выпускаемую под несвободной лицензией или безвольно-неограничительной лицензией, мы рекомендуем воспользоваться Меньшей стандартной общественной лицензией GNU (LGPL).

В отличие от первого случая, когда в библиотеке реализуется превосходный в этическом отношении стандарт, широкое применение библиотеки само по себе здесь не достигает особо поставленной цели, так что нет причины избегать авторского лева полностью. Однако если вы потребуете от разработчиков, применяющих вашу библиотеку, выпускать их программы в целом под авторским левом, они просто станут пользоваться одной из доступных альтернатив, а это тоже ничем не поможет нашему делу. Меньшая GPL была составлена, чтобы заполнить промежуток между этими случаями, позволив разработчикам несвободных программ пользоваться библиотекой под этой лицензией, но предоставляя слабое авторское лево, которое дает пользователям свободу в отношении программ самой библиотеки.

Для библиотек, которые предоставляют особые возможности и которые не встречают эшелонированной конкуренции несвободных программ или программ без авторского лева, мы рекомендуем простую GPL. О причинах этого см. в статье Почему вам не следует применять Меньшую GPL для своей следующей библиотеки.

Серверные программы

Если вероятно, что другие будут делать улучшенные версии вашей программы для работы на серверах, не распространяя их среди кого бы то ни было еще, и вас беспокоит, что это поставит вашу выпущенную версию в невыгодное положение, то мы рекомендуем Стандартную общественную лицензию GNU Афферо (AGPL). Условия AGPL почти идентичны условиям GPL; единственное существенное различие состоит в том, что в ней есть дополнительное условие, гарантирующее, что люди, которые пользуются программой по сети, смогут получать исходный текст программы.

Документация

Для практических руководств, справочников и других крупных работ в сфере документации мы рекомендуем Лицензию свободной документации GNU (FDL). Это лицензия с сильным авторским левом для работ образовательного характера. Первоначально она была составлена для руководств по программам. Она включает в себя особые условия, которые решают обычные проблемы, возникающие при распространении и модификации таких работ.

Для кратких, второстепенных работ по документации, таких, как справочная карточка, лучше применять всеразрешающую лицензию GNU, поскольку копия GFDL едва ли могла бы разместиться на карточке. Не пользуйтесь CC BY, поскольку она несовместима с GFDL.

Прочие данные для программ

В этом разделе обсуждаются все прочие работы практического значения, которые вы могли бы присоединять к программам. В качестве примеров можно привести пиктограммы и другие функциональные и прикладные изображения, шрифты и географические данные. Вы также можете следовать им в отношении художественных произведений, хотя мы не стали бы вас упрекать, если вы этого не делаете.

Если вы создаете эти работы специально для применения в программах, мы в общем рекомендуем вам выпускать свою работу под той же лицензией, что и программы. Если вы пользуетесь лицензиями, которые мы рекомендуем, это не представляет затруднений: и GPLv3, и LGPLv3, и AGPLv3, и GPLv2 можно применять для любого рода работ — а не только для программ — которые могут быть объектами авторского права и для которых ясно, что такое форма, предпочтительная для внесения изменений. Применение той же самой лицензии поможет облегчить удовлетворение требований распространителями и снимает сомнения о возможных проблемах совместимости. Применение другой свободной лицензии может быть уместно, если это предоставляет некоторые особые практические выгоды — такие, как улучшение сотрудничества с другими свободными проектами.

Эту страницу поддерживает Лаборатория лицензирования Фонда свободного программного обеспечения. Вы можете поддержать нашу работу пожертвованием в ФСПО. Есть вопрос, на который здесь не ответили? Обратитесь к нашим материалам по лицензированию или свяжитесь с лабораторией по адресу licensing@fsf.org.

Выбор правильной лицензии для open-source проекта на Objective-C, чтобы не было проблем с App Store?

Если таких простых лицензий несколько, буду рад увидеть описание их различий. Также приветствуются любые дополнительные разъяснения по поводу лицензирования простого и безамбициозного open-source кода на github.

Да, мне известно, что существуют сайты, подобные http://www.tldrlegal.com/browse.

Но мне было бы, скажем, удобно увидеть ответы вроде «у меня на гитхабе вот уже n штук проектов — и я использую такие и такие-то лицензии» прежде чем начинать вникать во всё это количество.

Другими словами, узнать, какие конкретно простые лицензии люди успешно используют для своих проектов (примеры приветствуются) да так, что эти проекты одобряются App Store.

ОБНОВЛЕНО ЕЩЁ ПОЗЖЕ:

Я разобрался с тем, какие бывают лицензии и, более точно, какую лицензию мне следует выбрать.

Судя по тому, что ни одного развёрнутого содержательного ответа так и не появляется, я делаю вывод, что должен написать ответ на этот топик сам. И я обязательно сделаю это после того, как проект в составе приложения окажется на App Store.

Отслеживать
Stanislav Pankevich
задан 25 фев 2013 в 10:44
Stanislav Pankevich Stanislav Pankevich
4,720 3 3 золотых знака 28 28 серебряных знаков 46 46 бронзовых знаков

4 ответа 4

Сортировка: Сброс на вариант по умолчанию

Наконец, дошли руки написать ответ по теме лицензирования.

С момента создания этого топика прошло 1,5 года, и хотя за это время лично мне ни разу не пришлось столкнуться с проблемами лицензирования своего или использования чужого кода, мне кажется, что минимальные представления о лицензировании необходимы любому разработчику. Попробую отметить несколько моментов, которые считаю для себя ключевыми:

Отсутствие лицензии у проекта — плохо

Эта вещь может быть совершенно неочевидной, но проект, который не содержит лицензии, максимально защищен: все права принадлежат автору, и вы никак не можете его использовать. Точка.

То есть, если вы используете проект без лицензии, вы подвергаете себя неопределенных размера и качества риску, который пропорционален «серьезности» проекта и случайному стечению обстоятельств. Если вы публикуете куда-либо, например, на Github, свой собственный проект-фреймворк-библиотеку без лицензии, вы подвергаете риску кого-то другого.

В одной из статей, ссылки на которые я привожу ниже, есть совет (цитирую вольно): «если вы заметили, что в некоем проекте на Github отсутствует лицензия, создайте pull request и предложите автору какую-нибудь свободную лицензию вроде Apache License v2. Если он в своем уме, то он задумается, если нет, то по крайней мере вы попытались».

Алгоритм разбора лицензий, который используется в процессе AppStore review как бы не суров, но все равно пренебрегать им не стоит

Теперь, имея чуть больше знаний о лицензировании, я понимаю, что Apple многих огрешностей в лицензировании или не видит, или «сознательно» игнорирует.

Например, в одно из своих приложений я несколько раз включал очень сильно модифицированную мной версию third-party библиотеки, распространяемой по лицензии Apache License v2. Согласно этой лицензии, я должен был задокументировать все свои изменения в заголовках модифицированных файлов. Я этого по незнанию, конечно же, не сделал. Очевидно, что на это никто не обратил внимание, и я пока ни разу не слышал от коллег, чтобы они столкнулись с вниманием Apple к такого рода мелким огрехам.

Здравый смысл и отсутствие сведений о противоположном заставляют думать, что AppStore пропускает приложения и с гораздо более грубыми нарушениями лицензирования, и что зависит это скорее всего от того, насколько «рыба крупная»: количества денег, завязанных на приложении, размера целевой аудитории и т.д.

Несмотря на отсутствие видимой строгости со стороны Apple, теперь я достаточно строго следую правилам лицензий, которые указаны в third-party проектах и теперь уже автоматически всегда обращаю внимание на то, какая именно лицензия передо мной, есть ли у нее специальные добавления, правки и.т.п.

Необходимость наличия файла лицензии в проекте (и в исходных файлах проекта)

Например, если ваш проект использует лицензию MIT, то простого указания «этот проект использует лицензию MIT» будет недостаточно.

Указанное выше уведомление об авторском праве и данные условия должны быть включены во все копии или значимые части данного Программного Обеспечения.

Поэтому в случае с MIT необходимо наличие файла с лицензией LICENSE в корне проекта, и очень желательно присутствие текста лицензии в заголовке каждого файла исходного кода, Пример: Alamofire.

В случае с Apache License 2.0 также необходимо наличие файла с лицензией, но нет необходимости включать текст самой лицензии в файлы исходного кода, будет достаточно лишь ссылки на лицензию, Пример: Realm.

Выбор лицензии

MIT License — это самая распространенная лицензия для проектов под iOS/OSX на Github. Если совсем нет желания разобраться в лицензировании, можно абсолютно спокойно выбирать ее и считать, что вопрос решен, однако лучше знать хотя бы о следующих видах лицензий:

iOS/OSX dynamic frameworks / CocoaPods / Carthage

Вопрос с лицензированием, возможно, становится слегка более острым в связи с тем, что в связи с появлением iOS dynamic frameworks сейчас все большее количество iOS-разработчиков начинает использовать CocoaPods с опцией use_frameworks! , многие переходят на Carthage, а некоторые и вовсе переходят на ручное управление фреймворками. Все эти три способа предполагают, что есть множество папок с расширением .framework, которые лежат внутри архива приложения, отдельно от него, что автоматически как бы намекает на необходимость наличия в папках этих фреймворков файлов LICENSE.

Хороший пример: база данных Realm, поддерживающая все перечисленные виды распространения и содержащая в своих Realm.framework/Resources файл составной лицензии. Кстати, в этой лицензии есть очень интересные строки, согласно которым, если я правильно понимаю, пользователь Realm не может находиться в странах Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan, or Syria:

EXPORT COMPLIANCE You understand that the Software may contain cryptographic functions that may be subject to export restrictions, and you represent and warrant that you are not located in a country that is subject to United States export restriction or embargo, including Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan, or Syria, and that you are not on the Department of Commerce list of Denied Persons, Unverified Parties, or affiliated with a Restricted Entity. 

(теперь я очень легко могу представить себя гражданином Ирана, который по поводу этой лицензии напишет письмо разработчикам Realm с просьбой прояснить этот пункт).

Ссылки

Помимо сервиса для выбора лицензии, который порекомендовал @aknew: Software Licenses in Plain English, есть еще один, тоже интересный: Choosing an OSS license doesn’t need to be scary.

А вот две статьи, которые я очень советую прочитать всем, кто заинтересовался этой темой:

Лицензия для вашего open-source проекта

В этой статье я хочу немного поговорить об авторском праве и свободных лицензиях на ПО. Текст является результатом самостоятельного выбора лицензий и их применения к своим проектам.

Статья будет полезна тем, кто хочет:

— в общих чертах понять, что такое авторское право (но лучше обратиться к юристу);
— подобрать свободную лицензию для своего проекта;
— разобраться, что нужно писать в шапке файла исходного кода.

Первым делом — ссылка на LicenseIT, очень полезный сайт с описанием лицензий и особенностей их применения (в том числе в России), который я умудрился не найти при подготовке статьи. Исправляюсь. Спасибо sensboston за ссылку.

Авторское право

Для начала коротко о том, что вообще такое авторское право и лицензии.

Meanwhile in Russia

Если вы в качестве результата интеллектуальной деятельности создали некое произведение (например, программу), то в этом случае вы — его автор(ы). Вы обладаете имущественными и неимущественными правами на это произведение. Имущественные права на это произведение вы можете передать и кому-то другому, но передать неимущественные, в том числе авторство, у вас уже не получится. Быть автором — это ваше неотчуждаемое и непередаваемое право.

Даже если вы при создании произведения работали «на дядю», то и в этом случае автор вовсе не некое абстрактное ООО. Возможно, когда вы устраивались на работу, то подписывали в том числе и пункт про «отчуждение исключительных прав на результаты вашей интеллектуальной деятельности в пользу работодателя» в договоре или что-то подобное. Возможно, нет (в этом случае гуглите «Служебное произведение»). В обоих случаях автор — вы. И обладаете некоторыми правами.

Лицензии

Другой способ передачи прав на произведение — лицензия. В этом случае права не отчуждаются, они передаются в соответствии с тем, что прописано в лицензионном договоре между пользователем и правообладателем. Да, лицензия — это именно договор! Все лицензии на ПО, как коммерческие, так и свободные, представляют из себя такой договор. В нем прописано, что вы можете и что не можете делать с ПО, и как далеко вас может послать правообладатель в случае претензий. Например, лицензия может дать вам право устанавливать программу, но ограничивать это право только одним компьютером, иначе к вам приедут дяди в масках и все отберут.

Обратите внимание на важный момент: если у вас достаточно прав на произведение, то вы можете распространять его под разными лицензиями (в том числе, одновременно). Например, на вашем сайте вы можете распространять программу бесплатно под свободной лицензией, а в каком-либо магазине приложений она может продаваться за деньги под их стандартной лицензией.

Также Вы можете сменить лицензию в любое время: например, сегодня у вас на сайте программа была бесплатной под свободной лицензией, а завтра она платная и с закрытыми исходниками. Но в этом случае вы не можете заставить пользователей, скачавших программу ранее, следовать нормам новой лицензии. Это логично, ведь они получили программу по другому договору.

В мире

В целом, вышеописанное применимо к большинству стран мира. Дело в том, что благодаря нескольким международным конвенциям, законы об авторском праве в мире схожи (но есть и некоторое число стран, не подписывавших конвенции). Однако, даже при этом отличия существуют. Например, в России неимущественные права не отчуждаются. А, скажем, в Канаде можно от них отказаться, но нельзя передать. Поэтому при возможности лучше всегда консультироваться с локальным юристом.

Свободные лицензии

Определяем определение
  • Лицензия на программное обеспечение
  • Определение свободного программного обеспечения
  • Критерии Debian по определению свободного программного обеспечения
  • Свободная лицензия
  • Проприетарное программное обеспечение

Свободной лицензией является лицензия, которая соответствует неким критериям свободного ПО. Обычно используют либо определение свободного ПО, данное Ричардом Столлманом, либо критерии Debian по определению свободного программного обеспечения, сформулированные Брюсом Перенсом. Соответственно, те лицензии, которые не являются свободными — несвободные.

На мой личный взгляд, заморачиваться с конкретными определениями нет никакого смысла, мы ведь не политики (ну, по крайней мере, я). А с практической точки зрения, основная разница между свободными и несвободными лицензиями — в целях. Несвободные лицензии применяются с целью заработать и не дать на этом заработать конкурентам, свободные — с целью предоставить возможность безвозмездно пользоваться плодами вашего труда.

Copyleft

Перед тем как приступить к описанию лицензий, нужно разобраться, что такое копилефтные и разрешительные (пермиссивные, permissive) лицензии. Копилефтными считаются свободные лицензии, требующие распространять производные продукты под такой же лицензией. То есть, если вы использовали в своей программе библиотеку под копилефтной лицензией, то вам придется распространять вашу программу под ней же. Задача же разрешительных лицензий, напротив, разрешить любое возможное использование продукта.

Основные свободные лицензии

Большой список свободных лицензий можно найти на сайте GNU.
Также, sensboston дал ссылку на еще один список с open-source лицензиями.
Здесь же я приведу список лицензий, в которому будут те лицензии, которые я считаю наиболее полезными и/или значимыми, и те, написать про которые вы предложили в комментариях.

GPLv3 (GNU General Public License Version 3)

Текст лицензии

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Как применять лицензии GNU со своими программами
Практическое руководство по соответствию GPL, спасибо Indexator за ссылку.
GNU GPL 3 человеческим языком, еще раз спасибо Indexator.
Самая известная из свободных лицензий. Не в том смысле, что все хорошо ее понимают, а в том, что она более всего на слуху. Так как она называется свободной, многие ошибочно считают, что код, выпущенный под GPL, можно использовать как угодно, а программы могут/должны быть только бесплатными. И то, и другое — неправда. GNU GPL — копилефтная лицензия, и требует, чтобы исходные коды производных работ были открытыми под ней же. То есть, если вы решите использовать библиотеку под GPL в вашем проекте, вам придется выложить исходники вашего проекта под GPL, что обычно неприемлемо для коммерческих разработок вам придется бесплатно предоставлять исходники проекта конечным получателям, даже если вы распространяете продукт за деньги (спасибо хабраюзеру coh за указание на неточность). Да, продажа программы лицензией вполне разрешена. Предоставлять исходники можно как вместе с программой, так и отдельно. Во втором случае бинарная версия программы должна содержать четкие инструкции по получению исходных кодов. Более подробные объяснения — перевод части официальногоGPL FAQ(еще раз спасибо, coh !).

GPLv2 (GNU General Public License Version 2)

Текст лицензии

GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2, June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed. Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead.) You can apply it to your programs, too. When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things. To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it. For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify the software. Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the program proprietary. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all. The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification follow. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program", below, refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in the term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed as "you". Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. 1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty; and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. 2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third parties under the terms of this License. c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run, you must cause it, when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement.) These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program, and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program. In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License. 3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it, under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or, b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or, c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.) The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. For an executable work, complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. However, as a special exception, the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component itself accompanies the executable. If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. 4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. 5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not signed it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. 6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. 7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues), conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program. If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system, which is implemented by public license practices. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice. This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License. 8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License. 9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. 10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally. NO WARRANTY 11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION. 12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found. Copyright (C)  This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA. Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode: Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'. This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions; type `show c' for details. The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names: Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. , 1 April 1989 Ty Coon, President of Vice This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License.

Как применять лицензии GNU со своими программами
Практическое руководство по соответствию GPL, спасибо Indexator за ссылку.
Как резонно заметил wholeman в комментариях, не хватает описания GNU GPL версии 2. О различиях между этими двумя версиями GPL можно почитать, например, в этой статье. Также, из комментария wholeman:

GPLv3 заметно строже и может создать некоторые проблемы автору. Например, одно из требований состоит в том, что должна быть предоставлена инструкция по установке изменённого приложения на устройство. Для приложений под iOS или WindowsPhone, где нет штатной возможности установить пакет не из магазина, выполнить такое требование проблематично.

Кроме того, стоит заметить, что большинство программ, выпущенных, под GNU GPLv2, позволяют использование на условиях более поздней версии лицензии.

LGPLv3 (GNU Lesser General Public License Version 3, в девичестве GNU Library General Public License)

Текст лицензии

GNU LESSER GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 3, 29 June 2007 Copyright (C) 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed. This version of the GNU Lesser General Public License incorporates the terms and conditions of version 3 of the GNU General Public License, supplemented by the additional permissions listed below. 0. Additional Definitions. As used herein, "this License" refers to version 3 of the GNU Lesser General Public License, and the "GNU GPL" refers to version 3 of the GNU General Public License. "The Library" refers to a covered work governed by this License, other than an Application or a Combined Work as defined below. An "Application" is any work that makes use of an interface provided by the Library, but which is not otherwise based on the Library. Defining a subclass of a class defined by the Library is deemed a mode of using an interface provided by the Library. A "Combined Work" is a work produced by combining or linking an Application with the Library. The particular version of the Library with which the Combined Work was made is also called the "Linked Version". The "Minimal Corresponding Source" for a Combined Work means the Corresponding Source for the Combined Work, excluding any source code for portions of the Combined Work that, considered in isolation, are based on the Application, and not on the Linked Version. The "Corresponding Application Code" for a Combined Work means the object code and/or source code for the Application, including any data and utility programs needed for reproducing the Combined Work from the Application, but excluding the System Libraries of the Combined Work. 1. Exception to Section 3 of the GNU GPL. You may convey a covered work under sections 3 and 4 of this License without being bound by section 3 of the GNU GPL. 2. Conveying Modified Versions. If you modify a copy of the Library, and, in your modifications, a facility refers to a function or data to be supplied by an Application that uses the facility (other than as an argument passed when the facility is invoked), then you may convey a copy of the modified version: a) under this License, provided that you make a good faith effort to ensure that, in the event an Application does not supply the function or data, the facility still operates, and performs whatever part of its purpose remains meaningful, or b) under the GNU GPL, with none of the additional permissions of this License applicable to that copy. 3. Object Code Incorporating Material from Library Header Files. The object code form of an Application may incorporate material from a header file that is part of the Library. You may convey such object code under terms of your choice, provided that, if the incorporated material is not limited to numerical parameters, data structure layouts and accessors, or small macros, inline functions and templates (ten or fewer lines in length), you do both of the following: a) Give prominent notice with each copy of the object code that the Library is used in it and that the Library and its use are covered by this License. b) Accompany the object code with a copy of the GNU GPL and this license document. 4. Combined Works. You may convey a Combined Work under terms of your choice that, taken together, effectively do not restrict modification of the portions of the Library contained in the Combined Work and reverse engineering for debugging such modifications, if you also do each of the following: a) Give prominent notice with each copy of the Combined Work that the Library is used in it and that the Library and its use are covered by this License. b) Accompany the Combined Work with a copy of the GNU GPL and this license document. c) For a Combined Work that displays copyright notices during execution, include the copyright notice for the Library among these notices, as well as a reference directing the user to the copies of the GNU GPL and this license document. d) Do one of the following: 0) Convey the Minimal Corresponding Source under the terms of this License, and the Corresponding Application Code in a form suitable for, and under terms that permit, the user to recombine or relink the Application with a modified version of the Linked Version to produce a modified Combined Work, in the manner specified by section 6 of the GNU GPL for conveying Corresponding Source. 1) Use a suitable shared library mechanism for linking with the Library. A suitable mechanism is one that (a) uses at run time a copy of the Library already present on the user's computer system, and (b) will operate properly with a modified version of the Library that is interface-compatible with the Linked Version. e) Provide Installation Information, but only if you would otherwise be required to provide such information under section 6 of the GNU GPL, and only to the extent that such information is necessary to install and execute a modified version of the Combined Work produced by recombining or relinking the Application with a modified version of the Linked Version. (If you use option 4d0, the Installation Information must accompany the Minimal Corresponding Source and Corresponding Application Code. If you use option 4d1, you must provide the Installation Information in the manner specified by section 6 of the GNU GPL for conveying Corresponding Source.) 5. Combined Libraries. You may place library facilities that are a work based on the Library side by side in a single library together with other library facilities that are not Applications and are not covered by this License, and convey such a combined library under terms of your choice, if you do both of the following: a) Accompany the combined library with a copy of the same work based on the Library, uncombined with any other library facilities, conveyed under the terms of this License. b) Give prominent notice with the combined library that part of it is a work based on the Library, and explaining where to find the accompanying uncombined form of the same work. 6. Revised Versions of the GNU Lesser General Public License. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the GNU Lesser General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Library as you received it specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU Lesser General Public License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that published version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Library as you received it does not specify a version number of the GNU Lesser General Public License, you may choose any version of the GNU Lesser General Public License ever published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Library as you received it specifies that a proxy can decide whether future versions of the GNU Lesser General Public License shall apply, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of any version is permanent authorization for you to choose that version for the Library.

Как применять лицензии GNU со своими программами
LGPL — это надстройка над GPL, и требует наличия текстов обеих лицензий в проекте. Отличие LGPL от обычной GPL заключается в том, что библиотеки под этой лицензией разрешается использовать для создания программ под другими лицензиями путем компоновки. Согласно GNU FAQ, динамическая компоновка не требует открывать исходные коды, а при статической необходимо предоставлять вашу программу в объектной форме (исходные коды не обязательны), для того чтобы пользователь мог сам изменить библиотеку и перелинковать бинарник. Впрочем, как заметил Athari, это не было обосновано в суде. GNU рекомендует применять эту лицензию только в том случае, если применение вместо нее обычной GPL приведет к тому, что библиотеку перестанут использовать, заменив на аналогичную.

GNU AGPLv3 (GNU Affero, GNU Affero General Public License Version 3)

Текст лицензии

GNU AFFERO GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 3, 19 November 2007 Copyright (C) 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed. Preamble The GNU Affero General Public License is a free, copyleft license for software and other kinds of works, specifically designed to ensure cooperation with the community in the case of network server software. The licenses for most software and other practical works are designed to take away your freedom to share and change the works. By contrast, our General Public Licenses are intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change all versions of a program--to make sure it remains free software for all its users. When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for them if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs, and that you know you can do these things. Developers that use our General Public Licenses protect your rights with two steps: (1) assert copyright on the software, and (2) offer you this License which gives you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify the software. A secondary benefit of defending all users' freedom is that improvements made in alternate versions of the program, if they receive widespread use, become available for other developers to incorporate. Many developers of free software are heartened and encouraged by the resulting cooperation. However, in the case of software used on network servers, this result may fail to come about. The GNU General Public License permits making a modified version and letting the public access it on a server without ever releasing its source code to the public. The GNU Affero General Public License is designed specifically to ensure that, in such cases, the modified source code becomes available to the community. It requires the operator of a network server to provide the source code of the modified version running there to the users of that server. Therefore, public use of a modified version, on a publicly accessible server, gives the public access to the source code of the modified version. An older license, called the Affero General Public License and published by Affero, was designed to accomplish similar goals. This is a different license, not a version of the Affero GPL, but Affero has released a new version of the Affero GPL which permits relicensing under this license. The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification follow. TERMS AND CONDITIONS 0. Definitions. "This License" refers to version 3 of the GNU Affero General Public License. "Copyright" also means copyright-like laws that apply to other kinds of works, such as semiconductor masks. "The Program" refers to any copyrightable work licensed under this License. Each licensee is addressed as "you". "Licensees" and "recipients" may be individuals or organizations. To "modify" a work means to copy from or adapt all or part of the work in a fashion requiring copyright permission, other than the making of an exact copy. The resulting work is called a "modified version" of the earlier work or a work "based on" the earlier work. A "covered work" means either the unmodified Program or a work based on the Program. To "propagate" a work means to do anything with it that, without permission, would make you directly or secondarily liable for infringement under applicable copyright law, except executing it on a computer or modifying a private copy. Propagation includes copying, distribution (with or without modification), making available to the public, and in some countries other activities as well. To "convey" a work means any kind of propagation that enables other parties to make or receive copies. Mere interaction with a user through a computer network, with no transfer of a copy, is not conveying. An interactive user interface displays "Appropriate Legal Notices" to the extent that it includes a convenient and prominently visible feature that (1) displays an appropriate copyright notice, and (2) tells the user that there is no warranty for the work (except to the extent that warranties are provided), that licensees may convey the work under this License, and how to view a copy of this License. If the interface presents a list of user commands or options, such as a menu, a prominent item in the list meets this criterion. 1. Source Code. The "source code" for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. "Object code" means any non-source form of a work. A "Standard Interface" means an interface that either is an official standard defined by a recognized standards body, or, in the case of interfaces specified for a particular programming language, one that is widely used among developers working in that language. The "System Libraries" of an executable work include anything, other than the work as a whole, that (a) is included in the normal form of packaging a Major Component, but which is not part of that Major Component, and (b) serves only to enable use of the work with that Major Component, or to implement a Standard Interface for which an implementation is available to the public in source code form. A "Major Component", in this context, means a major essential component (kernel, window system, and so on) of the specific operating system (if any) on which the executable work runs, or a compiler used to produce the work, or an object code interpreter used to run it. The "Corresponding Source" for a work in object code form means all the source code needed to generate, install, and (for an executable work) run the object code and to modify the work, including scripts to control those activities. However, it does not include the work's System Libraries, or general-purpose tools or generally available free programs which are used unmodified in performing those activities but which are not part of the work. For example, Corresponding Source includes interface definition files associated with source files for the work, and the source code for shared libraries and dynamically linked subprograms that the work is specifically designed to require, such as by intimate data communication or control flow between those subprograms and other parts of the work. The Corresponding Source need not include anything that users can regenerate automatically from other parts of the Corresponding Source. The Corresponding Source for a work in source code form is that same work. 2. Basic Permissions. All rights granted under this License are granted for the term of copyright on the Program, and are irrevocable provided the stated conditions are met. This License explicitly affirms your unlimited permission to run the unmodified Program. The output from running a covered work is covered by this License only if the output, given its content, constitutes a covered work. This License acknowledges your rights of fair use or other equivalent, as provided by copyright law. You may make, run and propagate covered works that you do not convey, without conditions so long as your license otherwise remains in force. You may convey covered works to others for the sole purpose of having them make modifications exclusively for you, or provide you with facilities for running those works, provided that you comply with the terms of this License in conveying all material for which you do not control copyright. Those thus making or running the covered works for you must do so exclusively on your behalf, under your direction and control, on terms that prohibit them from making any copies of your copyrighted material outside their relationship with you. Conveying under any other circumstances is permitted solely under the conditions stated below. Sublicensing is not allowed; section 10 makes it unnecessary. 3. Protecting Users' Legal Rights From Anti-Circumvention Law. 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You may convey verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice; keep intact all notices stating that this License and any non-permissive terms added in accord with section 7 apply to the code; keep intact all notices of the absence of any warranty; and give all recipients a copy of this License along with the Program. You may charge any price or no price for each copy that you convey, and you may offer support or warranty protection for a fee. 5. Conveying Modified Source Versions. You may convey a work based on the Program, or the modifications to produce it from the Program, in the form of source code under the terms of section 4, provided that you also meet all of these conditions: a) The work must carry prominent notices stating that you modified it, and giving a relevant date. b) The work must carry prominent notices stating that it is released under this License and any conditions added under section 7. This requirement modifies the requirement in section 4 to "keep intact all notices". c) You must license the entire work, as a whole, under this License to anyone who comes into possession of a copy. This License will therefore apply, along with any applicable section 7 additional terms, to the whole of the work, and all its parts, regardless of how they are packaged. This License gives no permission to license the work in any other way, but it does not invalidate such permission if you have separately received it. d) If the work has interactive user interfaces, each must display Appropriate Legal Notices; however, if the Program has interactive interfaces that do not display Appropriate Legal Notices, your work need not make them do so. A compilation of a covered work with other separate and independent works, which are not by their nature extensions of the covered work, and which are not combined with it such as to form a larger program, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the compilation and its resulting copyright are not used to limit the access or legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. Inclusion of a covered work in an aggregate does not cause this License to apply to the other parts of the aggregate. 6. Conveying Non-Source Forms. You may convey a covered work in object code form under the terms of sections 4 and 5, provided that you also convey the machine-readable Corresponding Source under the terms of this License, in one of these ways: a) Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product (including a physical distribution medium), accompanied by the Corresponding Source fixed on a durable physical medium customarily used for software interchange. b) Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product (including a physical distribution medium), accompanied by a written offer, valid for at least three years and valid for as long as you offer spare parts or customer support for that product model, to give anyone who possesses the object code either (1) a copy of the Corresponding Source for all the software in the product that is covered by this License, on a durable physical medium customarily used for software interchange, for a price no more than your reasonable cost of physically performing this conveying of source, or (2) access to copy the Corresponding Source from a network server at no charge. c) Convey individual copies of the object code with a copy of the written offer to provide the Corresponding Source. This alternative is allowed only occasionally and noncommercially, and only if you received the object code with such an offer, in accord with subsection 6b. d) Convey the object code by offering access from a designated place (gratis or for a charge), and offer equivalent access to the Corresponding Source in the same way through the same place at no further charge. You need not require recipients to copy the Corresponding Source along with the object code. If the place to copy the object code is a network server, the Corresponding Source may be on a different server (operated by you or a third party) that supports equivalent copying facilities, provided you maintain clear directions next to the object code saying where to find the Corresponding Source. Regardless of what server hosts the Corresponding Source, you remain obligated to ensure that it is available for as long as needed to satisfy these requirements. e) Convey the object code using peer-to-peer transmission, provided you inform other peers where the object code and Corresponding Source of the work are being offered to the general public at no charge under subsection 6d. A separable portion of the object code, whose source code is excluded from the Corresponding Source as a System Library, need not be included in conveying the object code work. A "User Product" is either (1) a "consumer product", which means any tangible personal property which is normally used for personal, family, or household purposes, or (2) anything designed or sold for incorporation into a dwelling. In determining whether a product is a consumer product, doubtful cases shall be resolved in favor of coverage. For a particular product received by a particular user, "normally used" refers to a typical or common use of that class of product, regardless of the status of the particular user or of the way in which the particular user actually uses, or expects or is expected to use, the product. A product is a consumer product regardless of whether the product has substantial commercial, industrial or non-consumer uses, unless such uses represent the only significant mode of use of the product. "Installation Information" for a User Product means any methods, procedures, authorization keys, or other information required to install and execute modified versions of a covered work in that User Product from a modified version of its Corresponding Source. The information must suffice to ensure that the continued functioning of the modified object code is in no case prevented or interfered with solely because modification has been made. If you convey an object code work under this section in, or with, or specifically for use in, a User Product, and the conveying occurs as part of a transaction in which the right of possession and use of the User Product is transferred to the recipient in perpetuity or for a fixed term (regardless of how the transaction is characterized), the Corresponding Source conveyed under this section must be accompanied by the Installation Information. But this requirement does not apply if neither you nor any third party retains the ability to install modified object code on the User Product (for example, the work has been installed in ROM). The requirement to provide Installation Information does not include a requirement to continue to provide support service, warranty, or updates for a work that has been modified or installed by the recipient, or for the User Product in which it has been modified or installed. Access to a network may be denied when the modification itself materially and adversely affects the operation of the network or violates the rules and protocols for communication across the network. Corresponding Source conveyed, and Installation Information provided, in accord with this section must be in a format that is publicly documented (and with an implementation available to the public in source code form), and must require no special password or key for unpacking, reading or copying. 7. Additional Terms. "Additional permissions" are terms that supplement the terms of this License by making exceptions from one or more of its conditions. Additional permissions that are applicable to the entire Program shall be treated as though they were included in this License, to the extent that they are valid under applicable law. If additional permissions apply only to part of the Program, that part may be used separately under those permissions, but the entire Program remains governed by this License without regard to the additional permissions. When you convey a copy of a covered work, you may at your option remove any additional permissions from that copy, or from any part of it. (Additional permissions may be written to require their own removal in certain cases when you modify the work.) You may place additional permissions on material, added by you to a covered work, for which you have or can give appropriate copyright permission. Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, for material you add to a covered work, you may (if authorized by the copyright holders of that material) supplement the terms of this License with terms: a) Disclaiming warranty or limiting liability differently from the terms of sections 15 and 16 of this License; or b) Requiring preservation of specified reasonable legal notices or author attributions in that material or in the Appropriate Legal Notices displayed by works containing it; or c) Prohibiting misrepresentation of the origin of that material, or requiring that modified versions of such material be marked in reasonable ways as different from the original version; or d) Limiting the use for publicity purposes of names of licensors or authors of the material; or e) Declining to grant rights under trademark law for use of some trade names, trademarks, or service marks; or f) Requiring indemnification of licensors and authors of that material by anyone who conveys the material (or modified versions of it) with contractual assumptions of liability to the recipient, for any liability that these contractual assumptions directly impose on those licensors and authors. All other non-permissive additional terms are considered "further restrictions" within the meaning of section 10. If the Program as you received it, or any part of it, contains a notice stating that it is governed by this License along with a term that is a further restriction, you may remove that term. If a license document contains a further restriction but permits relicensing or conveying under this License, you may add to a covered work material governed by the terms of that license document, provided that the further restriction does not survive such relicensing or conveying. If you add terms to a covered work in accord with this section, you must place, in the relevant source files, a statement of the additional terms that apply to those files, or a notice indicating where to find the applicable terms. Additional terms, permissive or non-permissive, may be stated in the form of a separately written license, or stated as exceptions; the above requirements apply either way. 8. Termination. You may not propagate or modify a covered work except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to propagate or modify it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License (including any patent licenses granted under the third paragraph of section 11). However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation. Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice. Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, you do not qualify to receive new licenses for the same material under section 10. 9. Acceptance Not Required for Having Copies. You are not required to accept this License in order to receive or run a copy of the Program. Ancillary propagation of a covered work occurring solely as a consequence of using peer-to-peer transmission to receive a copy likewise does not require acceptance. However, nothing other than this License grants you permission to propagate or modify any covered work. These actions infringe copyright if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or propagating a covered work, you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so. 10. Automatic Licensing of Downstream Recipients. Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensors, to run, modify and propagate that work, subject to this License. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties with this License. An "entity transaction" is a transaction transferring control of an organization, or substantially all assets of one, or subdividing an organization, or merging organizations. If propagation of a covered work results from an entity transaction, each party to that transaction who receives a copy of the work also receives whatever licenses to the work the party's predecessor in interest had or could give under the previous paragraph, plus a right to possession of the Corresponding Source of the work from the predecessor in interest, if the predecessor has it or can get it with reasonable efforts. You may not impose any further restrictions on the exercise of the rights granted or affirmed under this License. For example, you may not impose a license fee, royalty, or other charge for exercise of rights granted under this License, and you may not initiate litigation (including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that any patent claim is infringed by making, using, selling, offering for sale, or importing the Program or any portion of it. 11. Patents. A "contributor" is a copyright holder who authorizes use under this License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based. The work thus licensed is called the contributor's "contributor version". A contributor's "essential patent claims" are all patent claims owned or controlled by the contributor, whether already acquired or hereafter acquired, that would be infringed by some manner, permitted by this License, of making, using, or selling its contributor version, but do not include claims that would be infringed only as a consequence of further modification of the contributor version. For purposes of this definition, "control" includes the right to grant patent sublicenses in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License. Each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free patent license under the contributor's essential patent claims, to make, use, sell, offer for sale, import and otherwise run, modify and propagate the contents of its contributor version. In the following three paragraphs, a "patent license" is any express agreement or commitment, however denominated, not to enforce a patent (such as an express permission to practice a patent or covenant not to sue for patent infringement). To "grant" such a patent license to a party means to make such an agreement or commitment not to enforce a patent against the party. If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent license, and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available for anyone to copy, free of charge and under the terms of this License, through a publicly available network server or other readily accessible means, then you must either (1) cause the Corresponding Source to be so available, or (2) arrange to deprive yourself of the benefit of the patent license for this particular work, or (3) arrange, in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License, to extend the patent license to downstream recipients. "Knowingly relying" means you have actual knowledge that, but for the patent license, your conveying the covered work in a country, or your recipient's use of the covered work in a country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that country that you have reason to believe are valid. If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate, modify or convey a specific copy of the covered work, then the patent license you grant is automatically extended to all recipients of the covered work and works based on it. A patent license is "discriminatory" if it does not include within the scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that are specifically granted under this License. You may not convey a covered work if you are a party to an arrangement with a third party that is in the business of distributing software, under which you make payment to the third party based on the extent of your activity of conveying the work, and under which the third party grants, to any of the parties who would receive the covered work from you, a discriminatory patent license (a) in connection with copies of the covered work conveyed by you (or copies made from those copies), or (b) primarily for and in connection with specific products or compilations that contain the covered work, unless you entered into that arrangement, or that patent license was granted, prior to 28 March 2007. Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law. 12. No Surrender of Others' Freedom. If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot convey a covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not convey it at all. For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you to collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you convey the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those terms and this License would be to refrain entirely from conveying the Program. 13. Remote Network Interaction; Use with the GNU General Public License. Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, if you modify the Program, your modified version must prominently offer all users interacting with it remotely through a computer network (if your version supports such interaction) an opportunity to receive the Corresponding Source of your version by providing access to the Corresponding Source from a network server at no charge, through some standard or customary means of facilitating copying of software. This Corresponding Source shall include the Corresponding Source for any work covered by version 3 of the GNU General Public License that is incorporated pursuant to the following paragraph. Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed under version 3 of the GNU General Public License into a single combined work, and to convey the resulting work. 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If the Program does not specify a version number of the GNU Affero General Public License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of the GNU Affero General Public License can be used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Program. Later license versions may give you additional or different permissions. However, no additional obligations are imposed on any author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a later version. 15. Disclaimer of Warranty. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. 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IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MODIFIES AND/OR CONVEYS THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. 17. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16. If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms, reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a copy of the Program in return for a fee. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found. Copyright (C)  This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Affero General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU Affero General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU Affero General Public License along with this program. If not, see . Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. If your software can interact with users remotely through a computer network, you should also make sure that it provides a way for users to get its source. For example, if your program is a web application, its interface could display a "Source" link that leads users to an archive of the code. There are many ways you could offer source, and different solutions will be better for different programs; see section 13 for the specific requirements. You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary. For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU AGPL, see .

Как применять лицензии GNU со своими программами
Спасибо coh и lorus за то, что о ней вспомнили. Это копилефтная лицензия.

Ее условия фактически состоят из условий GPLv3 с дополнительным параграфом в разделе 13, который позволяет пользователям, взаимодействующим с лицензируемой программой по сети, получать исходный текст этой программы. Мы рекомендуем разработчикам подумать о применении GNU AGPL для любых программ, которые обычно выполняются в сети.

Есть определенные нюансы совместимости с другими версиями GPL:

Обратите внимание, что GNU AGPL не совместима с GPLv2. Она также формально не совместима с GPLv3 в узком смысле: вы не можете взять исходные тексты, выпущенные на условиях GNU AGPL, и передавать или изменять их, как вам угодно, на условиях GPLv3, и наоборот. Однако вам позволено комбинировать раздельные модули или файлы исходного текста, выпущенные под обеими этими лицензиями, в едином проекте, что предоставит многим программистам разрешение на все действия, нужные им для того, чтобы делать какие им угодно программы.

MPL v2.0 (Mozilla Public License
Version 2.0)

Текст лицензии

Mozilla Public License Version 2.0 1. Definitions 1.1. “Contributor” means each individual or legal entity that creates, contributes to the creation of, or owns Covered Software. 1.2. “Contributor Version” means the combination of the Contributions of others (if any) used by a Contributor and that particular Contributor’s Contribution. 1.3. “Contribution” means Covered Software of a particular Contributor. 1.4. “Covered Software” means Source Code Form to which the initial Contributor has attached the notice in Exhibit A, the Executable Form of such Source Code Form, and Modifications of such Source Code Form, in each case including portions thereof. 1.5. “Incompatible With Secondary Licenses” means that the initial Contributor has attached the notice described in Exhibit B to the Covered Software; or that the Covered Software was made available under the terms of version 1.1 or earlier of the License, but not also under the terms of a Secondary License. 1.6. “Executable Form” means any form of the work other than Source Code Form. 1.7. “Larger Work” means a work that combines Covered Software with other material, in a separate file or files, that is not Covered Software. 1.8. “License” means this document. 1.9. “Licensable” means having the right to grant, to the maximum extent possible, whether at the time of the initial grant or subsequently, any and all of the rights conveyed by this License. 1.10. “Modifications” means any of the following: any file in Source Code Form that results from an addition to, deletion from, or modification of the contents of Covered Software; or any new file in Source Code Form that contains any Covered Software. 1.11. “Patent Claims” of a Contributor means any patent claim(s), including without limitation, method, process, and apparatus claims, in any patent Licensable by such Contributor that would be infringed, but for the grant of the License, by the making, using, selling, offering for sale, having made, import, or transfer of either its Contributions or its Contributor Version. 1.12. “Secondary License” means either the GNU General Public License, Version 2.0, the GNU Lesser General Public License, Version 2.1, the GNU Affero General Public License, Version 3.0, or any later versions of those licenses. 1.13. “Source Code Form” means the form of the work preferred for making modifications. 1.14. “You” (or “Your”) means an individual or a legal entity exercising rights under this License. For legal entities, “You” includes any entity that controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with You. For purposes of this definition, “control” means (a) the power, direct or indirect, to cause the direction or management of such entity, whether by contract or otherwise, or (b) ownership of more than fifty percent (50%) of the outstanding shares or beneficial ownership of such entity. 2. License Grants and Conditions 2.1. Grants Each Contributor hereby grants You a world-wide, royalty-free, non-exclusive license: under intellectual property rights (other than patent or trademark) Licensable by such Contributor to use, reproduce, make available, modify, display, perform, distribute, and otherwise exploit its Contributions, either on an unmodified basis, with Modifications, or as part of a Larger Work; and under Patent Claims of such Contributor to make, use, sell, offer for sale, have made, import, and otherwise transfer either its Contributions or its Contributor Version. 2.2. Effective Date The licenses granted in Section 2.1 with respect to any Contribution become effective for each Contribution on the date the Contributor first distributes such Contribution. 2.3. Limitations on Grant Scope The licenses granted in this Section 2 are the only rights granted under this License. No additional rights or licenses will be implied from the distribution or licensing of Covered Software under this License. Notwithstanding Section 2.1(b) above, no patent license is granted by a Contributor: for any code that a Contributor has removed from Covered Software; or for infringements caused by: (i) Your and any other third party’s modifications of Covered Software, or (ii) the combination of its Contributions with other software (except as part of its Contributor Version); or under Patent Claims infringed by Covered Software in the absence of its Contributions. This License does not grant any rights in the trademarks, service marks, or logos of any Contributor (except as may be necessary to comply with the notice requirements in Section 3.4). 2.4. Subsequent Licenses No Contributor makes additional grants as a result of Your choice to distribute the Covered Software under a subsequent version of this License (see Section 10.2) or under the terms of a Secondary License (if permitted under the terms of Section 3.3). 2.5. Representation Each Contributor represents that the Contributor believes its Contributions are its original creation(s) or it has sufficient rights to grant the rights to its Contributions conveyed by this License. 2.6. Fair Use This License is not intended to limit any rights You have under applicable copyright doctrines of fair use, fair dealing, or other equivalents. 2.7. Conditions Sections 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, and 3.4 are conditions of the licenses granted in Section 2.1. 3. Responsibilities 3.1. Distribution of Source Form All distribution of Covered Software in Source Code Form, including any Modifications that You create or to which You contribute, must be under the terms of this License. You must inform recipients that the Source Code Form of the Covered Software is governed by the terms of this License, and how they can obtain a copy of this License. You may not attempt to alter or restrict the recipients’ rights in the Source Code Form. 3.2. Distribution of Executable Form If You distribute Covered Software in Executable Form then: such Covered Software must also be made available in Source Code Form, as described in Section 3.1, and You must inform recipients of the Executable Form how they can obtain a copy of such Source Code Form by reasonable means in a timely manner, at a charge no more than the cost of distribution to the recipient; and You may distribute such Executable Form under the terms of this License, or sublicense it under different terms, provided that the license for the Executable Form does not attempt to limit or alter the recipients’ rights in the Source Code Form under this License. 3.3. Distribution of a Larger Work You may create and distribute a Larger Work under terms of Your choice, provided that You also comply with the requirements of this License for the Covered Software. If the Larger Work is a combination of Covered Software with a work governed by one or more Secondary Licenses, and the Covered Software is not Incompatible With Secondary Licenses, this License permits You to additionally distribute such Covered Software under the terms of such Secondary License(s), so that the recipient of the Larger Work may, at their option, further distribute the Covered Software under the terms of either this License or such Secondary License(s). 3.4. Notices You may not remove or alter the substance of any license notices (including copyright notices, patent notices, disclaimers of warranty, or limitations of liability) contained within the Source Code Form of the Covered Software, except that You may alter any license notices to the extent required to remedy known factual inaccuracies. 3.5. Application of Additional Terms You may choose to offer, and to charge a fee for, warranty, support, indemnity or liability obligations to one or more recipients of Covered Software. However, You may do so only on Your own behalf, and not on behalf of any Contributor. You must make it absolutely clear that any such warranty, support, indemnity, or liability obligation is offered by You alone, and You hereby agree to indemnify every Contributor for any liability incurred by such Contributor as a result of warranty, support, indemnity or liability terms You offer. You may include additional disclaimers of warranty and limitations of liability specific to any jurisdiction. 4. Inability to Comply Due to Statute or Regulation If it is impossible for You to comply with any of the terms of this License with respect to some or all of the Covered Software due to statute, judicial order, or regulation then You must: (a) comply with the terms of this License to the maximum extent possible; and (b) describe the limitations and the code they affect. Such description must be placed in a text file included with all distributions of the Covered Software under this License. Except to the extent prohibited by statute or regulation, such description must be sufficiently detailed for a recipient of ordinary skill to be able to understand it. 5. Termination 5.1. The rights granted under this License will terminate automatically if You fail to comply with any of its terms. However, if You become compliant, then the rights granted under this License from a particular Contributor are reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until such Contributor explicitly and finally terminates Your grants, and (b) on an ongoing basis, if such Contributor fails to notify You of the non-compliance by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after You have come back into compliance. Moreover, Your grants from a particular Contributor are reinstated on an ongoing basis if such Contributor notifies You of the non-compliance by some reasonable means, this is the first time You have received notice of non-compliance with this License from such Contributor, and You become compliant prior to 30 days after Your receipt of the notice. 5.2. If You initiate litigation against any entity by asserting a patent infringement claim (excluding declaratory judgment actions, counter-claims, and cross-claims) alleging that a Contributor Version directly or indirectly infringes any patent, then the rights granted to You by any and all Contributors for the Covered Software under Section 2.1 of this License shall terminate. 5.3. In the event of termination under Sections 5.1 or 5.2 above, all end user license agreements (excluding distributors and resellers) which have been validly granted by You or Your distributors under this License prior to termination shall survive termination. 6. Disclaimer of Warranty Covered Software is provided under this License on an “as is” basis, without warranty of any kind, either expressed, implied, or statutory, including, without limitation, warranties that the Covered Software is free of defects, merchantable, fit for a particular purpose or non-infringing. The entire risk as to the quality and performance of the Covered Software is with You. Should any Covered Software prove defective in any respect, You (not any Contributor) assume the cost of any necessary servicing, repair, or correction. This disclaimer of warranty constitutes an essential part of this License. No use of any Covered Software is authorized under this License except under this disclaimer. 7. Limitation of Liability Under no circumstances and under no legal theory, whether tort (including negligence), contract, or otherwise, shall any Contributor, or anyone who distributes Covered Software as permitted above, be liable to You for any direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages of any character including, without limitation, damages for lost profits, loss of goodwill, work stoppage, computer failure or malfunction, or any and all other commercial damages or losses, even if such party shall have been informed of the possibility of such damages. This limitation of liability shall not apply to liability for death or personal injury resulting from such party’s negligence to the extent applicable law prohibits such limitation. Some jurisdictions do not allow the exclusion or limitation of incidental or consequential damages, so this exclusion and limitation may not apply to You. 8. Litigation Any litigation relating to this License may be brought only in the courts of a jurisdiction where the defendant maintains its principal place of business and such litigation shall be governed by laws of that jurisdiction, without reference to its conflict-of-law provisions. Nothing in this Section shall prevent a party’s ability to bring cross-claims or counter-claims. 9. Miscellaneous This License represents the complete agreement concerning the subject matter hereof. If any provision of this License is held to be unenforceable, such provision shall be reformed only to the extent necessary to make it enforceable. Any law or regulation which provides that the language of a contract shall be construed against the drafter shall not be used to construe this License against a Contributor. 10. Versions of the License 10.1. New Versions Mozilla Foundation is the license steward. Except as provided in Section 10.3, no one other than the license steward has the right to modify or publish new versions of this License. Each version will be given a distinguishing version number. 10.2. Effect of New Versions You may distribute the Covered Software under the terms of the version of the License under which You originally received the Covered Software, or under the terms of any subsequent version published by the license steward. 10.3. Modified Versions If you create software not governed by this License, and you want to create a new license for such software, you may create and use a modified version of this License if you rename the license and remove any references to the name of the license steward (except to note that such modified license differs from this License). 10.4. Distributing Source Code Form that is Incompatible With Secondary Licenses If You choose to distribute Source Code Form that is Incompatible With Secondary Licenses under the terms of this version of the License, the notice described in Exhibit B of this License must be attached. Exhibit A - Source Code Form License Notice This Source Code Form is subject to the terms of the Mozilla Public License, v. 2.0. If a copy of the MPL was not distributed with this file, You can obtain one at http://mozilla.org/MPL/2.0/. If it is not possible or desirable to put the notice in a particular file, then You may include the notice in a location (such as a LICENSE file in a relevant directory) where a recipient would be likely to look for such a notice. You may add additional accurate notices of copyright ownership. Exhibit B - “Incompatible With Secondary Licenses” Notice This Source Code Form is “Incompatible With Secondary Licenses”, as defined by the Mozilla Public License, v. 2.0.

Комментарий от lorus

Для проекта open source стоит ещё рассмотреть MPL 2.0. Своеобразная лицензия, что-то среднее между LGPL и BSD. От LGPL отличается отсутствием заморочек со статическим связыванием. Это может оказаться важным для программ на ЯП, в которых динамическое связывание не предусмотрено.

В случае использования неизмененной библиотеки под MPL 2.0, как части большего проекта, нужно всего лишь указывать, где можно получить исходники этой библиотеки. Но если вы все же меняете код, то обязаны предоставить доступ к измененному вами коду под все той же MPL 2.0. То есть, лицензия копилефтная. Здесь небольшое уточнение от Athari:

Лицензией MPL заражаются файлы, а не проекты, в отличие от (L)GPL. Если изменить файл, он должен остаться под MPL. Если добавить — ограничений нет.

В случае, если проект под GNU GPL, то необходимо сделать используемый в нем код под MPL 2.0 доступным сразу под обеими лицензиями.

Для использования этой лицензии в вашем проекте нужно добавить текст из Exhibit A лицензии

This Source Code Form is subject to the terms of the Mozilla Public License, v. 2.0. If a copy of the MPL was not distributed with this file, You can obtain one at http://mozilla.org/MPL/2.0/.

в качестве шапки в каждый файл исходного кода. Лицензия не требует указывать copyright в каждом файле, но и не запрещает этого. Также не забудьте добавить в проект файл LICENSE с текстом лицензии.

EPL-1.0 (Eclipse Public License Version 1.0)

Текст лицензии

Eclipse Public License - v 1.0 THE ACCOMPANYING PROGRAM IS PROVIDED UNDER THE TERMS OF THIS ECLIPSE PUBLIC LICENSE ("AGREEMENT"). ANY USE, REPRODUCTION OR DISTRIBUTION OF THE PROGRAM CONSTITUTES RECIPIENT'S ACCEPTANCE OF THIS AGREEMENT. 1. DEFINITIONS "Contribution" means: a) in the case of the initial Contributor, the initial code and documentation distributed under this Agreement, and b) in the case of each subsequent Contributor: i) changes to the Program, and ii) additions to the Program; where such changes and/or additions to the Program originate from and are distributed by that particular Contributor. A Contribution 'originates' from a Contributor if it was added to the Program by such Contributor itself or anyone acting on such Contributor's behalf. Contributions do not include additions to the Program which: (i) are separate modules of software distributed in conjunction with the Program under their own license agreement, and (ii) are not derivative works of the Program. "Contributor" means any person or entity that distributes the Program. "Licensed Patents" mean patent claims licensable by a Contributor which are necessarily infringed by the use or sale of its Contribution alone or when combined with the Program. "Program" means the Contributions distributed in accordance with this Agreement. "Recipient" means anyone who receives the Program under this Agreement, including all Contributors. 2. GRANT OF RIGHTS a) Subject to the terms of this Agreement, each Contributor hereby grants Recipient a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free copyright license to reproduce, prepare derivative works of, publicly display, publicly perform, distribute and sublicense the Contribution of such Contributor, if any, and such derivative works, in source code and object code form. b) Subject to the terms of this Agreement, each Contributor hereby grants Recipient a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free patent license under Licensed Patents to make, use, sell, offer to sell, import and otherwise transfer the Contribution of such Contributor, if any, in source code and object code form. This patent license shall apply to the combination of the Contribution and the Program if, at the time the Contribution is added by the Contributor, such addition of the Contribution causes such combination to be covered by the Licensed Patents. The patent license shall not apply to any other combinations which include the Contribution. No hardware per se is licensed hereunder. c) Recipient understands that although each Contributor grants the licenses to its Contributions set forth herein, no assurances are provided by any Contributor that the Program does not infringe the patent or other intellectual property rights of any other entity. Each Contributor disclaims any liability to Recipient for claims brought by any other entity based on infringement of intellectual property rights or otherwise. As a condition to exercising the rights and licenses granted hereunder, each Recipient hereby assumes sole responsibility to secure any other intellectual property rights needed, if any. For example, if a third party patent license is required to allow Recipient to distribute the Program, it is Recipient's responsibility to acquire that license before distributing the Program. d) Each Contributor represents that to its knowledge it has sufficient copyright rights in its Contribution, if any, to grant the copyright license set forth in this Agreement. 3. REQUIREMENTS A Contributor may choose to distribute the Program in object code form under its own license agreement, provided that: a) it complies with the terms and conditions of this Agreement; and b) its license agreement: i) effectively disclaims on behalf of all Contributors all warranties and conditions, express and implied, including warranties or conditions of title and non-infringement, and implied warranties or conditions of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose; ii) effectively excludes on behalf of all Contributors all liability for damages, including direct, indirect, special, incidental and consequential damages, such as lost profits; iii) states that any provisions which differ from this Agreement are offered by that Contributor alone and not by any other party; and iv) states that source code for the Program is available from such Contributor, and informs licensees how to obtain it in a reasonable manner on or through a medium customarily used for software exchange. When the Program is made available in source code form: a) it must be made available under this Agreement; and b) a copy of this Agreement must be included with each copy of the Program. Contributors may not remove or alter any copyright notices contained within the Program. Each Contributor must identify itself as the originator of its Contribution, if any, in a manner that reasonably allows subsequent Recipients to identify the originator of the Contribution. 4. COMMERCIAL DISTRIBUTION Commercial distributors of software may accept certain responsibilities with respect to end users, business partners and the like. While this license is intended to facilitate the commercial use of the Program, the Contributor who includes the Program in a commercial product offering should do so in a manner which does not create potential liability for other Contributors. Therefore, if a Contributor includes the Program in a commercial product offering, such Contributor ("Commercial Contributor") hereby agrees to defend and indemnify every other Contributor ("Indemnified Contributor") against any losses, damages and costs (collectively "Losses") arising from claims, lawsuits and other legal actions brought by a third party against the Indemnified Contributor to the extent caused by the acts or omissions of such Commercial Contributor in connection with its distribution of the Program in a commercial product offering. The obligations in this section do not apply to any claims or Losses relating to any actual or alleged intellectual property infringement. In order to qualify, an Indemnified Contributor must: a) promptly notify the Commercial Contributor in writing of such claim, and b) allow the Commercial Contributor to control, and cooperate with the Commercial Contributor in, the defense and any related settlement negotiations. The Indemnified Contributor may participate in any such claim at its own expense. For example, a Contributor might include the Program in a commercial product offering, Product X. That Contributor is then a Commercial Contributor. If that Commercial Contributor then makes performance claims, or offers warranties related to Product X, those performance claims and warranties are such Commercial Contributor's responsibility alone. Under this section, the Commercial Contributor would have to defend claims against the other Contributors related to those performance claims and warranties, and if a court requires any other Contributor to pay any damages as a result, the Commercial Contributor must pay those damages. 5. NO WARRANTY EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY SET FORTH IN THIS AGREEMENT, THE PROGRAM IS PROVIDED ON AN "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF TITLE, NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Each Recipient is solely responsible for determining the appropriateness of using and distributing the Program and assumes all risks associated with its exercise of rights under this Agreement , including but not limited to the risks and costs of program errors, compliance with applicable laws, damage to or loss of data, programs or equipment, and unavailability or interruption of operations. 6. DISCLAIMER OF LIABILITY EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY SET FORTH IN THIS AGREEMENT, NEITHER RECIPIENT NOR ANY CONTRIBUTORS SHALL HAVE ANY LIABILITY FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION LOST PROFITS), HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OR DISTRIBUTION OF THE PROGRAM OR THE EXERCISE OF ANY RIGHTS GRANTED HEREUNDER, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. 7. GENERAL If any provision of this Agreement is invalid or unenforceable under applicable law, it shall not affect the validity or enforceability of the remainder of the terms of this Agreement, and without further action by the parties hereto, such provision shall be reformed to the minimum extent necessary to make such provision valid and enforceable. If Recipient institutes patent litigation against any entity (including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that the Program itself (excluding combinations of the Program with other software or hardware) infringes such Recipient's patent(s), then such Recipient's rights granted under Section 2(b) shall terminate as of the date such litigation is filed. All Recipient's rights under this Agreement shall terminate if it fails to comply with any of the material terms or conditions of this Agreement and does not cure such failure in a reasonable period of time after becoming aware of such noncompliance. If all Recipient's rights under this Agreement terminate, Recipient agrees to cease use and distribution of the Program as soon as reasonably practicable. However, Recipient's obligations under this Agreement and any licenses granted by Recipient relating to the Program shall continue and survive. Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute copies of this Agreement, but in order to avoid inconsistency the Agreement is copyrighted and may only be modified in the following manner. The Agreement Steward reserves the right to publish new versions (including revisions) of this Agreement from time to time. No one other than the Agreement Steward has the right to modify this Agreement. The Eclipse Foundation is the initial Agreement Steward. The Eclipse Foundation may assign the responsibility to serve as the Agreement Steward to a suitable separate entity. Each new version of the Agreement will be given a distinguishing version number. The Program (including Contributions) may always be distributed subject to the version of the Agreement under which it was received. In addition, after a new version of the Agreement is published, Contributor may elect to distribute the Program (including its Contributions) under the new version. Except as expressly stated in Sections 2(a) and 2(b) above, Recipient receives no rights or licenses to the intellectual property of any Contributor under this Agreement, whether expressly, by implication, estoppel or otherwise. All rights in the Program not expressly granted under this Agreement are reserved. This Agreement is governed by the laws of the State of New York and the intellectual property laws of the United States of America. No party to this Agreement will bring a legal action under this Agreement more than one year after the cause of action arose. Each party waives its rights to a jury trial in any resulting litigation.

По просьбе kidar2 добавляю лицензию EPL. Это копилефтная лицензия, но она не совместима с GNU GPL.

При распространении в форме исходного кода программа должна быть доступна под лицензией EPL.

Автору разрешается распространять программу в форме объектного кода под собственной лицензией, при условии, что: эта лицензия соблюдает условия EPL, явно отказывается от любых гарантий и ответственности от лица всех авторов, указывает, что исходные коды программы доступны у этого автора и объясняет, как их получить.

Применение к своему проекту: копия лицензии должна быть включена во все копии программы

Ms-PL (Microsoft Public License)

Текст лицензии

Microsoft Public License (Ms-PL) This license governs use of the accompanying software. If you use the software, you accept this license. If you do not accept the license, do not use the software. 1. Definitions The terms "reproduce," "reproduction," "derivative works," and "distribution" have the same meaning here as under U.S. copyright law. A "contribution" is the original software, or any additions or changes to the software. A "contributor" is any person that distributes its contribution under this license. "Licensed patents" are a contributor's patent claims that read directly on its contribution. 2. Grant of Rights (A) Copyright Grant- Subject to the terms of this license, including the license conditions and limitations in section 3, each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free copyright license to reproduce its contribution, prepare derivative works of its contribution, and distribute its contribution or any derivative works that you create. (B) Patent Grant- Subject to the terms of this license, including the license conditions and limitations in section 3, each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free license under its licensed patents to make, have made, use, sell, offer for sale, import, and/or otherwise dispose of its contribution in the software or derivative works of the contribution in the software. 3. Conditions and Limitations (A) No Trademark License- This license does not grant you rights to use any contributors' name, logo, or trademarks. (B) If you bring a patent claim against any contributor over patents that you claim are infringed by the software, your patent license from such contributor to the software ends automatically. (C) If you distribute any portion of the software, you must retain all copyright, patent, trademark, and attribution notices that are present in the software. (D) If you distribute any portion of the software in source code form, you may do so only under this license by including a complete copy of this license with your distribution. If you distribute any portion of the software in compiled or object code form, you may only do so under a license that complies with this license. (E) The software is licensed "as-is." You bear the risk of using it. The contributors give no express warranties, guarantees, or conditions. You may have additional consumer rights under your local laws which this license cannot change. To the extent permitted under your local laws, the contributors exclude the implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose and non-infringement.

Про лицензию напомнил sensboston. Копилефтная лицензия, несовместимая с GPL. По смыслу схожа с EPL, но написана гораздо, гораздо более человеческм языком. Самая короткая из присутствующих в этой статье копилефтных лицензий.

Обладает даже более слабым копилефтом, чем EPL: если вы распространяете исходные коды проекта, содержащие код под Ms-PL, то все исходные коды проекта должны распространяться под Ms-PL. При этом, распространение в форме объектного кода или бинарной форме позволяется под любой лицензией, не нарушающей Ms-PL. Кроме того, вы обязаны сохранять все копирайты, патенты, торговые марки и указания авторства оригинального кода. Да, лицензия регулирует патентные отношения.

Для применения к своему проекту: скопируйте текст лицензии в ваш проект (например, в файл LICENSE) и распространяйте его вместе с ним.

MIT

Текст лицензии

Copyright (c) 1998, 1999, 2000 Thai Open Source Software Center Ltd Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions: The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software. THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

Существует миф, что лицензия MIT существует. Дело в том, что MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) использовал много разных лицензий. Тот текст, который сейчас называют лицензией MIT, в оригинале являлся лицензией Expat, а еще ранее составлял большую часть лицензии X11. Эта лицензия — разрешительная, без копилефта. Она разрешает использование и изменение кода практически любым образом, при условии, что текст самой лицензии и указание авторства никуда не исчезнут, даже если вы разобьете изначальный проект на части. Также неоспоримое достоинство этой лицензии — небольшой размер. В качестве недостатка отмечают отсутствие регулирования патентных отношений. Из-за этого вместо нее GNU рекомендуют использовать другую разрешительную лицензию — Apache 2.0, а MIT предлагают использовать лишь для небольших проектов. Тем не менее, из разрешительных лицензий эта, пожалуй, самая известная.

Для ее применения к своему проекту создайте текстовый файл LICENSE и поместите текст лицензии туда, а также не забудьте заменить данные в строке с копирайтом на верные. Многие дополнительно указывают полный текст лицензии в шапке каждого файла исходного кода.

Apache 2.0

Текст лицензии

Apache License Version 2.0, January 2004 http://www.apache.org/licenses/ TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR USE, REPRODUCTION, AND DISTRIBUTION 1. Definitions. "License" shall mean the terms and conditions for use, reproduction, and distribution as defined by Sections 1 through 9 of this document. "Licensor" shall mean the copyright owner or entity authorized by the copyright owner that is granting the License. "Legal Entity" shall mean the union of the acting entity and all other entities that control, are controlled by, or are under common control with that entity. For the purposes of this definition, "control" means (i) the power, direct or indirect, to cause the direction or management of such entity, whether by contract or otherwise, or (ii) ownership of fifty percent (50%) or more of the outstanding shares, or (iii) beneficial ownership of such entity. "You" (or "Your") shall mean an individual or Legal Entity exercising permissions granted by this License. "Source" form shall mean the preferred form for making modifications, including but not limited to software source code, documentation source, and configuration files. "Object" form shall mean any form resulting from mechanical transformation or translation of a Source form, including but not limited to compiled object code, generated documentation, and conversions to other media types. "Work" shall mean the work of authorship, whether in Source or Object form, made available under the License, as indicated by a copyright notice that is included in or attached to the work (an example is provided in the Appendix below). "Derivative Works" shall mean any work, whether in Source or Object form, that is based on (or derived from) the Work and for which the editorial revisions, annotations, elaborations, or other modifications represent, as a whole, an original work of authorship. For the purposes of this License, Derivative Works shall not include works that remain separable from, or merely link (or bind by name) to the interfaces of, the Work and Derivative Works thereof. "Contribution" shall mean any work of authorship, including the original version of the Work and any modifications or additions to that Work or Derivative Works thereof, that is intentionally submitted to Licensor for inclusion in the Work by the copyright owner or by an individual or Legal Entity authorized to submit on behalf of the copyright owner. For the purposes of this definition, "submitted" means any form of electronic, verbal, or written communication sent to the Licensor or its representatives, including but not limited to communication on electronic mailing lists, source code control systems, and issue tracking systems that are managed by, or on behalf of, the Licensor for the purpose of discussing and improving the Work, but excluding communication that is conspicuously marked or otherwise designated in writing by the copyright owner as "Not a Contribution." "Contributor" shall mean Licensor and any individual or Legal Entity on behalf of whom a Contribution has been received by Licensor and subsequently incorporated within the Work. 2. Grant of Copyright License. Subject to the terms and conditions of this License, each Contributor hereby grants to You a perpetual, worldwide, non-exclusive, no-charge, royalty-free, irrevocable copyright license to reproduce, prepare Derivative Works of, publicly display, publicly perform, sublicense, and distribute the Work and such Derivative Works in Source or Object form. 3. Grant of Patent License. Subject to the terms and conditions of this License, each Contributor hereby grants to You a perpetual, worldwide, non-exclusive, no-charge, royalty-free, irrevocable (except as stated in this section) patent license to make, have made, use, offer to sell, sell, import, and otherwise transfer the Work, where such license applies only to those patent claims licensable by such Contributor that are necessarily infringed by their Contribution(s) alone or by combination of their Contribution(s) with the Work to which such Contribution(s) was submitted. If You institute patent litigation against any entity (including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that the Work or a Contribution incorporated within the Work constitutes direct or contributory patent infringement, then any patent licenses granted to You under this License for that Work shall terminate as of the date such litigation is filed. 4. Redistribution. You may reproduce and distribute copies of the Work or Derivative Works thereof in any medium, with or without modifications, and in Source or Object form, provided that You meet the following conditions: (a) You must give any other recipients of the Work or Derivative Works a copy of this License; and (b) You must cause any modified files to carry prominent notices stating that You changed the files; and (c) You must retain, in the Source form of any Derivative Works that You distribute, all copyright, patent, trademark, and attribution notices from the Source form of the Work, excluding those notices that do not pertain to any part of the Derivative Works; and (d) If the Work includes a "NOTICE" text file as part of its distribution, then any Derivative Works that You distribute must include a readable copy of the attribution notices contained within such NOTICE file, excluding those notices that do not pertain to any part of the Derivative Works, in at least one of the following places: within a NOTICE text file distributed as part of the Derivative Works; within the Source form or documentation, if provided along with the Derivative Works; or, within a display generated by the Derivative Works, if and wherever such third-party notices normally appear. The contents of the NOTICE file are for informational purposes only and do not modify the License. You may add Your own attribution notices within Derivative Works that You distribute, alongside or as an addendum to the NOTICE text from the Work, provided that such additional attribution notices cannot be construed as modifying the License. You may add Your own copyright statement to Your modifications and may provide additional or different license terms and conditions for use, reproduction, or distribution of Your modifications, or for any such Derivative Works as a whole, provided Your use, reproduction, and distribution of the Work otherwise complies with the conditions stated in this License. 5. Submission of Contributions. Unless You explicitly state otherwise, any Contribution intentionally submitted for inclusion in the Work by You to the Licensor shall be under the terms and conditions of this License, without any additional terms or conditions. Notwithstanding the above, nothing herein shall supersede or modify the terms of any separate license agreement you may have executed with Licensor regarding such Contributions. 6. Trademarks. This License does not grant permission to use the trade names, trademarks, service marks, or product names of the Licensor, except as required for reasonable and customary use in describing the origin of the Work and reproducing the content of the NOTICE file. 7. Disclaimer of Warranty. Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, Licensor provides the Work (and each Contributor provides its Contributions) on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied, including, without limitation, any warranties or conditions of TITLE, NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY, or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. You are solely responsible for determining the appropriateness of using or redistributing the Work and assume any risks associated with Your exercise of permissions under this License. 8. Limitation of Liability. In no event and under no legal theory, whether in tort (including negligence), contract, or otherwise, unless required by applicable law (such as deliberate and grossly negligent acts) or agreed to in writing, shall any Contributor be liable to You for damages, including any direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages of any character arising as a result of this License or out of the use or inability to use the Work (including but not limited to damages for loss of goodwill, work stoppage, computer failure or malfunction, or any and all other commercial damages or losses), even if such Contributor has been advised of the possibility of such damages. 9. Accepting Warranty or Additional Liability. While redistributing the Work or Derivative Works thereof, You may choose to offer, and charge a fee for, acceptance of support, warranty, indemnity, or other liability obligations and/or rights consistent with this License. However, in accepting such obligations, You may act only on Your own behalf and on Your sole responsibility, not on behalf of any other Contributor, and only if You agree to indemnify, defend, and hold each Contributor harmless for any liability incurred by, or claims asserted against, such Contributor by reason of your accepting any such warranty or additional liability. END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS APPENDIX: How to apply the Apache License to your work. To apply the Apache License to your work, attach the following boilerplate notice, with the fields enclosed by brackets "[]" replaced with your own identifying information. (Don't include the brackets!) The text should be enclosed in the appropriate comment syntax for the file format. We also recommend that a file or class name and description of purpose be included on the same "printed page" as the copyright notice for easier identification within third-party archives. Copyright [yyyy] [name of copyright owner] Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0 Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.

Наиболее современная и сбалансированная из разрешительных лицензий. Написана человеческим языком, но с оглядкой на современное правоприменение, в частности, упомянутые выше патентные отношения (пункт 3 лицензии). GNU советуют применять именно эту лицензию, когда вам необходима разрешительная лицензия.

Для применения лицензии Apache 2.0 к вашему проекту, нужно добавить в него файл LICENSE, содержащий текст лицензии. Кроме того, в APPENDIX лицензии нам предлагают добавлять в качестве шапки в каждый файл исходного кода следующий текст:

Copyright [yyyy] [name of copyright owner] Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0 Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.

Но при этом сама лицензия выдвигает следующие требования:

made available under the License, as indicated by a copyright notice that is included in or attached to the work (an example is provided in the Appendix below)

copyright notice — это как раз строка, указывающая правообладателя. А «made available under the License, as indicated» означает, что еще должна быть явно указана лицензия. То есть, допустимо что-то вида:

Copyright [yyyy] [name of copyright owner] Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0

Причем, совсем необязательно в исходном коде — Apache 2.0 позволяет для этого использовать файл NOTICE («or attached to the work»).

И еще о файле NOTICE: если в вашей работе вы используете чужой проект под лицензией Apache 2.0, содержащий свой файл NOTICE, то в этом случае вы обязаны копировать в производную работу содержимое файла NOTICE, в одно из трех мест: либо в аналогичный файл NOTICE, либо в исходные коды или документацию, распространяемую вместе с производной работой, либо в вывод производной работы (например в about-диалог); все согласно пункту 4 (d) лицензии. Заметьте, что, вопреки расхожему мнению, обязательного наличия файла NOTICE лицензия не требует.

При распространении в бинарной форме, вы, кроме того, должны предоставлять копию лицензии вместе с программой.

BSD

Текст лицензии

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: (1) Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. (2) Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. (3)The name of the author may not be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission. THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

Это разрешительная лицензия, схожая по смыслу с лицензией MIT. Оригинальная лицензия BSD состояла из 4-х пунктов, но, впоследствии, 3-й пункт, требовавший включать уведомление об авторстве во все рекламные материалы, был исключен. Кроме того, существует и двухпунктовая лицензия BSD, о которой напомнил Athari, в ней удален третий пункт, и эта версия практически совпадает по функциональности с лицензией MIT. GNU советуют вместо лицензии BSD использовать MIT, чтобы исключить путаницу с тем, какая именно версия лицензии BSD используется.

Для ее применения к своему проекту создайте текстовый файл LICENSE и поместите текст лицензии туда. Не забудьте добавить строку с копирайтом. Также, дополнительно можно указать полный текст лицензии в шапке каждого файла исходного кода.

При распространении в бинарной форме лицензия и копирайт должны быть представлены в документации и/или других материалах, распространяемых вместе с бинарником.

WTFPL Version 2

Текст лицензии

DO WHAT THE FUCK YOU WANT TO PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2, December 2004 Copyright (C) 2004 Sam Hocevar Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim or modified copies of this license document, and changing it is allowed as long as the name is changed. DO WHAT THE FUCK YOU WANT TO PUBLIC LICENSE TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 0. You just DO WHAT THE FUCK YOU WANT TO.

Как оказалось, весьма популярная на Хабре лицензия (спасибо Komzpa, Stasik0 и плюсовавшим). Кроме того, она присутствует в списке лицензий GNU, хотя они и постеснялись разместить ее текст на своем сайте.

GNU классифицируют ее как разрешительную некопилефтную лицензию и не рекомендуют ее использовать без каких-либо объяснений. Вместо нее предлагаются MIT или Apache 2.0.

  • во-первых, лицензия содержит лексику, которая может считаться ненормативной (и я не уверен, что в таком случае лицензию будут принимать в расчет, скажем, в суде),
  • во-вторых, в лицензии никак не прописан отказ от ответственности,
  • в-третьих, у меня есть подозрение, что разрешение пользователю делать с кодом все что угодно тоже может быть оспорено юристами.
Beerware

Текст лицензии

/*
* — * «THE BEER-WARE LICENSE» (Revision 42):
* wrote this file. As long as you retain this notice you
* can do whatever you want with this stuff. If we meet some day, and you think
* this stuff is worth it, you can buy me a beer in return. Poul-Henning Kamp
* — */

Еще одна лицензия, набравшая плюсов в комменатриях (спасибо JDima и плюсовавшим). Это тоже разрешительная лицензия, которая пытается разрешить все (ключевое слово «пытается») и содержит необязательное условие поставить автору пива (в других версиях, выпить в честь автора) при встрече, если вам понравился его проект.

Как известно, «чрезмерное употребление пива вредит вашему здоровью». Но беда этой лицензии не в пиве. Обратите внимание на фразу

wrote this file. As long as you retain this notice.

Теперь представьте, что вы изменили код этого файла. Или вы взяли код из этого файла, чтобы добавить в свой. Теперь фраза

wrote this file.

является неверной, но вы обязаны ее сохранить! То есть, лицензия пытается отобрать у вас право указывать авторство произведения. А, например, в России автор имеет неимущественные и неотчуждаемые право авторства и право автора на имя. Получается, что такая лицензия, разрешая изменения и использование кода и запрещая указывать новых авторов, является незаконной (по-хорошему, нужно уточнить у юриста).

Общественное достояние (Public Domain)

Это, конечно же, не лицензия. Но многие рассматривают перевод произведения в общественное достояние как способ сложить с себя имущественные права. Периодически люди пытаются сделать это и в отношении программ. Обычно просто пишут, что проект находится в Public Domain и радуются, что все смогут им пользоваться. Но на самом деле это не так! В разных странах общественное достояние разное. Причем, в большинстве из них закон явно не предусматривает механизмов для перевода произведения в общественное достояние по желанию автора! Например, в России переход в общественное достояние определен только по истечению срока действия защиты авторского права. В США, насколько мне известно, досрочной процедуры тоже не предусмотрено. Кроме того, могут быть сложности и с использованием произведений, находящихся в общественном достоянии. Скажем, в Уругвае, для того, чтобы использовать произведение из общественного достояния, вам понадобится уплатить пошлину государству и получить разрешение специальной комиссии, которая удостоверится, что вы не будете использовать данное произведение как-то непотребно (правда, я не знаю, работает ли все это в отношении программ). Вследствие подобных нюансов, появились лицензии подобные следующей.

CC0 (Creative Commons CC0)

Текст лицензии

CREATIVE COMMONS CORPORATION IS NOT A LAW FIRM AND DOES NOT PROVIDE LEGAL SERVICES. DISTRIBUTION OF THIS DOCUMENT DOES NOT CREATE AN ATTORNEY-CLIENT RELATIONSHIP. CREATIVE COMMONS PROVIDES THIS INFORMATION ON AN "AS-IS" BASIS. CREATIVE COMMONS MAKES NO WARRANTIES REGARDING THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENT OR THE INFORMATION OR WORKS PROVIDED HEREUNDER, AND DISCLAIMS LIABILITY FOR DAMAGES RESULTING FROM THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENT OR THE INFORMATION OR WORKS PROVIDED HEREUNDER. Statement of Purpose The laws of most jurisdictions throughout the world automatically confer exclusive Copyright and Related Rights (defined below) upon the creator and subsequent owner(s) (each and all, an "owner") of an original work of authorship and/or a database (each, a "Work"). Certain owners wish to permanently relinquish those rights to a Work for the purpose of contributing to a commons of creative, cultural and scientific works ("Commons") that the public can reliably and without fear of later claims of infringement build upon, modify, incorporate in other works, reuse and redistribute as freely as possible in any form whatsoever and for any purposes, including without limitation commercial purposes. These owners may contribute to the Commons to promote the ideal of a free culture and the further production of creative, cultural and scientific works, or to gain reputation or greater distribution for their Work in part through the use and efforts of others. For these and/or other purposes and motivations, and without any expectation of additional consideration or compensation, the person associating CC0 with a Work (the "Affirmer"), to the extent that he or she is an owner of Copyright and Related Rights in the Work, voluntarily elects to apply CC0 to the Work and publicly distribute the Work under its terms, with knowledge of his or her Copyright and Related Rights in the Work and the meaning and intended legal effect of CC0 on those rights. 1. Copyright and Related Rights. A Work made available under CC0 may be protected by copyright and related or neighboring rights ("Copyright and Related Rights"). Copyright and Related Rights include, but are not limited to, the following: the right to reproduce, adapt, distribute, perform, display, communicate, and translate a Work; moral rights retained by the original author(s) and/or performer(s); publicity and privacy rights pertaining to a person's image or likeness depicted in a Work; rights protecting against unfair competition in regards to a Work, subject to the limitations in paragraph 4(a), below; rights protecting the extraction, dissemination, use and reuse of data in a Work; database rights (such as those arising under Directive 96/9/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 1996 on the legal protection of databases, and under any national implementation thereof, including any amended or successor version of such directive); and other similar, equivalent or corresponding rights throughout the world based on applicable law or treaty, and any national implementations thereof. 2. Waiver. To the greatest extent permitted by, but not in contravention of, applicable law, Affirmer hereby overtly, fully, permanently, irrevocably and unconditionally waives, abandons, and surrenders all of Affirmer's Copyright and Related Rights and associated claims and causes of action, whether now known or unknown (including existing as well as future claims and causes of action), in the Work (i) in all territories worldwide, (ii) for the maximum duration provided by applicable law or treaty (including future time extensions), (iii) in any current or future medium and for any number of copies, and (iv) for any purpose whatsoever, including without limitation commercial, advertising or promotional purposes (the "Waiver"). Affirmer makes the Waiver for the benefit of each member of the public at large and to the detriment of Affirmer's heirs and successors, fully intending that such Waiver shall not be subject to revocation, rescission, cancellation, termination, or any other legal or equitable action to disrupt the quiet enjoyment of the Work by the public as contemplated by Affirmer's express Statement of Purpose. 3. Public License Fallback. Should any part of the Waiver for any reason be judged legally invalid or ineffective under applicable law, then the Waiver shall be preserved to the maximum extent permitted taking into account Affirmer's express Statement of Purpose. In addition, to the extent the Waiver is so judged Affirmer hereby grants to each affected person a royalty-free, non transferable, non sublicensable, non exclusive, irrevocable and unconditional license to exercise Affirmer's Copyright and Related Rights in the Work (i) in all territories worldwide, (ii) for the maximum duration provided by applicable law or treaty (including future time extensions), (iii) in any current or future medium and for any number of copies, and (iv) for any purpose whatsoever, including without limitation commercial, advertising or promotional purposes (the "License"). The License shall be deemed effective as of the date CC0 was applied by Affirmer to the Work. Should any part of the License for any reason be judged legally invalid or ineffective under applicable law, such partial invalidity or ineffectiveness shall not invalidate the remainder of the License, and in such case Affirmer hereby affirms that he or she will not (i) exercise any of his or her remaining Copyright and Related Rights in the Work or (ii) assert any associated claims and causes of action with respect to the Work, in either case contrary to Affirmer's express Statement of Purpose. 4. Limitations and Disclaimers. No trademark or patent rights held by Affirmer are waived, abandoned, surrendered, licensed or otherwise affected by this document. Affirmer offers the Work as-is and makes no representations or warranties of any kind concerning the Work, express, implied, statutory or otherwise, including without limitation warranties of title, merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, non infringement, or the absence of latent or other defects, accuracy, or the present or absence of errors, whether or not discoverable, all to the greatest extent permissible under applicable law. Affirmer disclaims responsibility for clearing rights of other persons that may apply to the Work or any use thereof, including without limitation any person's Copyright and Related Rights in the Work. Further, Affirmer disclaims responsibility for obtaining any necessary consents, permissions or other rights required for any use of the Work. Affirmer understands and acknowledges that Creative Commons is not a party to this document and has no duty or obligation with respect to this CC0 or use of the Work.

Creative Commons CC0 — лицензия, которая пытается перевести проект в общественное достояние в максимальной форме, разрешенной законом. А если закон не позволяет это совершить, автоматически применяет положения разрешительной лицензии. GNU рекомендует применять CC0 в том случае, если вы хотите перевести вашу работу в общественное достояние.

Про применение CC0 к проекту можно прочитать в этой статье.

Unlicense

Текст лицензии

This is free and unencumbered software released into the public domain. Anyone is free to copy, modify, publish, use, compile, sell, or distribute this software, either in source code form or as a compiled binary, for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial, and by any means. In jurisdictions that recognize copyright laws, the author or authors of this software dedicate any and all copyright interest in the software to the public domain. We make this dedication for the benefit of the public at large and to the detriment of our heirs and successors. We intend this dedication to be an overt act of relinquishment in perpetuity of all present and future rights to this software under copyright law. THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE. For more information, please refer to 

Про лицензию напомнил Athari. Эта лицензия появилась путем копипасты текста о передаче в общественное достояние и отказа от прав (waiver) проекта SQLite и отказа от гарантий из лицензии MIT. Аналогично лицензии CC0, Unlicense пытается перевести работу в общественное достояние и послужить в виде лицензионного договора на случай, если этого не произошло. Однако, эта лицензия менее проработана, чем CC0, из-за чего может являться нелегальной. Вот в этом вопросе на stackexchange подробнее. Вкратце, там указано, что лицензия явно нелегальна, например, в Германии, так как там, похоже, нет понятия общественного достояния. А Unlicense, в отличие от CC0, не отказывается от перевода в общественное достояние для случая, когда это противоречит закону. Кроме того лицензия как минимум нелогична (или даже противоречива), так как передача в общественное достояние, заявленная в первой строке, в случае успеха делает невалидными параграфы, следующие за ней.

Для применения Unlicense нужно добавить файл с текстом лицензии к вашему проекту. Авторы лицензии рекомендуют назвать файл UNLICENSE.

Copyright в исходниках

Наверное, вы заметили, что многие лицензии предлагают размещать определенный текст в виде комментария в шапке файла? Если это является обязательным требованием, то тогда ему нужно следовать. Но насколько необходим подобный текст, если явного требования лицензия не предъявляет?

Хорошие новости: в таком случае лицензию и даже копирайт совершенно не обязательно указывать в шапке файла. Ваша работа и так ваша, для подтверждения этого указывать копирайт нет необходимости. Подтверждать авторство или обладание правами вам все равно придется другими способами, а текст лицензии может находиться в отдельном файле.

  • Он четко показывает, что права на код кому-то принадлежат. Отмазки вида «я не знал, там не написано, не смог найти, не заметил» уже не прокатят. Иначе говоря, наличие такого заголовка предотвращает случайное неправомерное использование кода, а также может увеличить ответственность за намеренное.
  • Дает возможность идентифицировать владельца прав на код, чтобы связаться с ним в том числе и по вопросам правомерности использования этого кода.
  • Copyright — так как в некоторых странах одного символа копирайта недостаточно для юридической значимости уведомления.
  • © — символ копирайта, в большинстве стран он необходим и достаточен для придания юридической значимости уведомлению. Простой буквы c в скобках ( c ) для этого может быть недостаточно. Используйте уже Unicode!
  • 2007, 2009, 2010 – 2012 — «годы жизни» кода, первое число — год, когда продукт был впервые опубликован, далее — годы, когда код обновлялся. Если годы, когда код в файле правился, идут не подряд, то их нужно указывать через запятую.
  • John Doe — имя владельца авторских прав. Не автора, это могут быть разные лица! Может быть именем человека, названием компании, или именами нескольких человек. Правда, в последнем случае лучше сделать отдельную строчку на каждого человека.
  • All rights reserved — «все права защищены», означает, что указанные лица обладают всеми правами на код. Дополнительное усиление уведомления копирайта, в случае обладания исключительными правами.
  • Если возможно, то дать ссылку на лицензионный договор или указание, где его искать.
  • Указать контактные данные.

Ну и, на всякий случай, примеры

// Copyright © 2022 John Doe. All rights reserved. 
// Copyright © 2022-2096 Acme Corporation. All rights reserved. // Author: John Doe 
// Copyright © 2022 John Doe // Copyright © 2023-2028 Jane Doe // Copyright © 2028-2096 Acme Corporation. Contacts: // License: http://opensource.org/licenses/MIT 

Заключение

Разместить ваш проект в интернете и написать «пользуйтесь все!» еще недостаточно для того, чтобы им действительно начали пользоваться. И речь не о рекламе или полезности конкретного проекта. Часто необходимо четкое понимание, как можно и как нельзя использовать проект, особенно, если цели использования — коммерческие. В том числе, слова «пользуйтесь все» вряд ли удастся представить договором с правообладателем в случае каких-либо проблем.

При выборе лицензии задумайтесь, в первую очередь, о том, что лицензию вы пишете в большей степени не для себя, а для тех, кто вашим кодом будет пользоваться. Она регулирует ваши отношения с ними. Кто будет использовать ваш код? Как они будут его использовать? Какая из лицензий будет им удобнее? Какие проблемы из-за лицензии могут возникнуть у них? А у вас? Ответив на подобные вопросы, можно подобрать наилучшую лицензию.

В свою очередь, если вы используете чужой проект в своих целях, то нужно понять ограничения, накладываемые на вас его лицензией. Подходят ли они вам, сможете ли вы выполнить эти требования?

Лицензия, даже свободная, является договором между правообладателем и пользователем. Старайтесь рассматривать это именно так.

Материалы

  1. Право интеллектуальной собственности. Шпаргалка, Коллектив авторов
  2. Служебное произведение, Википедия
  3. Moral rights, Wikipedia
  4. Лицензия на программное обеспечение, Википедия
  5. Определение свободного программного обеспечения, Википедия
  6. Критерии Debian по определению свободного программного обеспечения, Википедия
  7. Свободная лицензия, Википедия
  8. Проприетарное программное обеспечение, Википедия
  9. Ричард Столлман, Википедия
  10. Брюс Перенс, Википедия
  11. Открытое программное обеспечение, Википедия
  12. Разрешительная лицензия свободного ПО, Википедия
  13. Various licenses and comments about them/Различные лицензии и комментарии к ним, GNU
  14. Копилефт, Википедия
  15. Understanding Open Source and Free Software Licensing, Andrew M. St. Laurent
  16. GNU Lesser General Public License, Википедия
  17. Почему вам не следует применять Меньшую GPL для своей следующей библиотеки, GNU
  18. Frequently Asked Questions about the GNU Licenses, GNU
  19. Как применять лицензии GNU со своими программами, GNU
  20. Лицензия BSD, Википедия
  21. Общественное достояние, Википедия
  22. Uruguay: Dominio Público pero Pagante, Fundación Karisma con Open Business Latinamerica and the Caribbean
  23. Managing copyright information within a free software project, Software Freedom Law Center
  24. Using copyright notices, The UK Copyright Service
  25. Get rid of source code templates, Ville Laurikari
  26. MPL 2.0 FAQ, Mozilla Foundation
  27. «The Beerware License» Considered Harmful, RM
  28. How does MS-PL license work? Stackoverflow
  29. Unlicense Yourself: Set Your Code Free
  30. What is wrong with the Unlicense?

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